Quick Summary of Terms & Definitions for Interview Part 3

→ Quick Summary of terms & definition used in Lean Manufacturing, Lean Management, Lean Six Sigma, 7 QC tools, Problem Solving Methods, etc. This will help all leaders for a quick summary.

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Pareto chart:
→ Pareto chart is the most popular prioritization tool.
→ It is a combined graph of bar graph and a line graph in which the bar graph is arranged on the x-axis which shows the high value to low value from left to the right side (the value may be defects, causes or any occurrences) while the line graph shows the cumulative percentages of x-axis value.
→ Based on this we can prioritize the most significant one for action.
→ This was invented by Mr. Vilfredo Pareto.
→ This is one of the most famous tools of 7 QC Tools.

P-chart (Percent chart):
→ P-chart is one of the types of control chart that is used for evaluating the stability of a process.
→ It refers to the percentage of the total number of units in a sample.
→ It is also known as a proportion chart.

Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle:
→ PDCA  Cycle is a four-step phase method for continuous improvement.
     [1] Plan phase - Development of the plan of improvement.
     [2] Do phase - The plan is carried out in this phase.
     [3] Check phase - Check what was our plan and what we have achieved?
     [4] Act - The action to be taken to improvement


Poka-yoke:
→ The Poka-yoke is a Japanese word that means mistake-proofing or error proofing.

Precision:
→ Precision is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results.
→ Good precision means less variation between measurements.
→ Also, read Precision vs Accuracy

Prevention cost:
→ Prevention cost is the cost incurred by actions taken to prevent a nonconformance from occurring.
→ It is one element of the Cost_of_Quality.
→ Also, check about Cost of_Quality vs Cost of Poor_Quality

Preventive action:
→ Preventive action is the action is taken to prevent the occurrence of nonconformances.

Probability (Statistical):
→ Probability is the likelihood of the occurrence of an event or action.

Problem-solving:
→ Problem-solving is the act of solving a problem or we can say that the reduce the gap between what we have expected and what we have achieved.

Procedure:
→ The procedure is a particular way of fulfilling an expected outcome.


Process:
→ The_process is a set of interrelated work activities that transform inputs into outputs.
→ In other words, a_process is any activity or set of activities that use resources to convert inputs into outputs.

Process analysis:
→ Process analysis is a study of the process_inputs, intermediate steps, and outputs.
→ Generally, this is used to identified bottleneck and improve process_effectiveness and efficiency.

Process Capability:
→ Process_Capability is a statistical measure of a process's ability to manufacture parts within the specification consistently.

Process Control:
→ The process_control is to ensure that the_process meets specified requirements.

Process Flow Diagram:
→ It is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of the operations to be performed to get the desired result.
→ Symbols are used for material and information flow in the process_flow diagram.

Process improvement:
→ The actions are taken to increase the effectiveness or efficiency of a_process is called process improvement.


Process map:
→ A process_map is a tool that visually describes the flow of process or work.

Process owner:
→ The process_owner is the person who assures the process results as per specified requirements and achieves objectives.

Product Audit:
→ Product Audit is a systematic and independent examination of a product and gathers the evidence to determine the degree of the conformance to the specified requirement.

Production Part Approval Process (PPAP):
→ PPAP is used in the automotive industry for establishing confidence in suppliers and their production processes.
→ Also, Check 18 PPAP documents with Excel Templates

Productivity:
→ Measurement of output for a given amount of input is called productivity.

Pull system:
→ Pull System is an inventory management system.
→ In this system, inventory is replenishing based on the user's demand rather than the market's forecast (Push System).


Quality:
→ Quality is a subjective term.
→ It has many definitions depends on persons and sectors.
→ In simple words, we can say that_quality means to fulfill all requirements of products and services which are predefined or free from defects.
→ According to Philip Crosby, quality_means “conformance to requirements.”

Quality Assurance:
→ Quality_Assurance is focused on preventing the defects rather than detection.
→ It is a proactive approach and prevention control.
→ Quality_Assurance vs Quality_Control

Quality Control:
→ Quality_Control is focused on the identification or detection of defects rather than preventing the defects.
→ It is a reactive approach and detection control.

Quality Audit:
→ In simple words, a quality_audit is a systematic, independent process of check the implemented management system matches the organization's defined management system or not?

Quality Circle:
→ A quality_circle is a group of people in an organization, who are from similar departments or cross-function departments, who identify, analyze, and solve work-related problems.
→ This group is usually led by a leader who presents its solutions to management.
→ Quality_circles originated in Japan, where they are called quality_control circles.


Quality Costs [Cost of Quality]:
→ The cost of_Quality is the total cost of quality_related activities.
→ Generally, it is considered the sum of prevention, appraisal, internal and external failure costs.

Quality engineering:
→ Quality_engineering means the analysis of a manufacturing system at all stages to maximize the quality of the process and products.

Quality Management (QM):
→ Quality_Management is Managing activities and resources of an organization to achieve objectives and prevent nonconformances.

Quality Plan:
→ Quality_Plan is documented information that provides the activities or methods to be taken to achieve objectives and meet specified requirements.

Quality policy:
→ Quality_Policy is a documented statement of commitment or intent to be implemented to achieve quality.


Regression analysis:
→ Regression analysis is a statistical technique for determining the best mathematical expression describing the functional relationship between a dependent variable (also known as the 'outcome variable') and one or more independent variables (also known as predictors).

Repeatability:
→ Repeatability is the variation in measurements obtained,
     ⇢ when one measurement device is used several times by the same person to measure the same characteristic on the same part.
→ Also, read about Repeatability vs Reproducibility

Reproducibility:
→ Reproducibility is the variation in measurements obtained,
     ⇢ when different people using the same measuring device to measure the same characteristic on the same part.

Right the first time:
→ Right the first time means to meet specified requirements with the initial attempt (or in the first attempt).


Risk Management:
→ Risk Management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks to eliminate or mitigate the probability or severity of the stated risk.

Robustness:
→ Robustness is the_quality or condition of being strong in any condition or it is the property of being strong and healthy.
→ In other words, Robustness is the ability to withstand or overcome adverse conditions or rigorous testing.

Root Cause:
→ A root cause is an initial (starting) cause that leads to the nonconformance.

Root Cause Analysis:
→ The method of identifying the cause of a problem that is responsible for the problem is known as root cause analysis.
→ In other words, It is a method for uncovering the correct and accurate reason(s) why something is happening or has already occurred.

Run chart:
→ A run chart is a chart showing a line connecting numerous data points collected from a process running over a period of time.

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