Quick Summary of Terms & Definitions for Interview Part 2

→ Quick Summary of terms & definition used in Lean Manufacturing, Lean Management, Lean Six Sigma, 7 QC tools, Problem Solving Methods, etc. This will help all leaders for a quick summary.

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Heijunka:
→ Heijunka is a method of leveling or balancing the operation steps in production or services.
→ This method helps to avoid unnecessary fluctuations in the production process.

Histogram:
→ The histogram is a frequency distribution curve.
→ It shows a graphic summary of variation in a set of variable data.
→ The Histogram is one of the most popular tools of the 7 QC Tools.
→ Read this for Various Types of Histogram

Hoshin kanri:
→ Hoshin Kanri is a Japanese word it means "Policy Deployment."
→ In this method, the strategic goal of the organization communicated across the organization with the help of middle management.


IATF 16949:
→ ITAF 16949 is an International Standard for Quality Management, specially made for the Automotive Industry.

In-control process:
→ If there are not any special cause(s) available in the process and all subgroup's data points are available within the control limit is called as In-control Process.

Incremental improvement:
→ We are implementing improvement on a continual basis is called Incremental Improvement.

Innovation:
→ Innovation is the new value created at an optimal cost, not at any cost with the help of the development of new processes, products or services.

Inspection:
→ Inspection is a verification activity.
→ For example, We are inspecting one or more characteristics of the product or services with specified requirements. It helps us to decide either this product or service is ok or not ok?
→ In the case of 100% inspection, we inspect all units, lot, or batch.
→ In sampling inspection, we inspect as per the sampling inspection plan.

Internal failure:
→ A product fails before the product is delivered to the external customer.

International Automotive Task Force (IATF):
→ The IATF is a group of automotive manufacturers & their respective trade associations.
→ Together they have formed a group to provide improved quality products to automotive customers worldwide.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO):
→ ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 164 national standards bodies.
→ It was founded on 23rd February 1947 in Geneva, Switzerland.
→ ISO promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards.


ISO 14001:
→ ISO 14001 is an Environmental Management System Standard. It is developed by the ISO.

ISO 19011:
→ ISO 19011 is a Guideline for the Auditing of Management System Standards developed by the ISO.

ISO 9001:
→ ISO 9001 is a Quality Management System standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Jidoka:
→ Jidoka is a Japanese word that means autonomation.
→ Autonomation refers to intelligent automation or automation with a human touch.
→ Example: Stopping a line automatically when a defective part is detected.
→ The Jidoka system empowers the worker to stop the line on which they are working if they found any non-conformity.

Juran Trilogy:
→ Dr. Joseph M. Juran identified three Managerial Processes for use in Managing for Quality is called as Juran Trilogy.
→ Three Managerial Processes are:
     [1] Quality Planning,
     [2] Quality Control, and
     [3] Quality Improvement.


Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing:
→ JIT is an optimal material requirement planning system for the manufacturing process.
→ In this system, there is little or no manufacturing material inventory available on hand at the manufacturing site.

Kaizen:
→ A Japanese term that means improvement for betterment.
→ "Kai" means change or improvement and "Zen" means for betterment.
→ Masaaki Imai made Kaizen famous across the world.
→ Also, read various categories of Kaizen.

Kanban:
→ Kanban means a signboard or a billboard.
→ It is a scheduling system that provides the material/products at the working station with the help of the Kanban board/card.
→ Kanban is a very effective method for production & inventory management.
→ It is a very popular Lean Manufacturing Tool.

Kano model:
→ As per Noriaki Kano, there are three classes of customer requirements as mentioned below:
→ Kano model is very popular in Six Sigma Projects.
     [1] Satisfiers
     [2] Dissatisfiers
     [3] Delighters/exciters


Key Performance Indicator (KPI):
→ Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is a statistical measure that shows the ongoing performance of the organization in a particular area.
→ KPI may be related to Productivity, Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Delivery, Safety, Morale, Environment, Finance, etc. which is defined by the organization.


Laboratory/lab:
→ The laboratory is a facility for performing calibration, validation and various testing such as chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical, etc.

Laboratory scope:
→ The scope is the ability and competency of the Laboratory to perform specific tests, calibrations, and validations.

Layout inspection:
→ The Layout Inspection is the complete inspection of all dimensions shown in the design record (drawing)

Leadership:
→ Leaders of the organization establish direction, unity of purpose and create the condition in which people are engaged in achieving the objectives of the organization is called Leadership.

Lead time:
→ The time between the order placed and receiving the product by the customer.


Lean:
→ Lean is a systematic method to eliminate or minimize waste from a process or system.
→ It improves productivity and profitability.

Lean Manufacturing/ Production:
→ Lean Manufacturing is an initiative focused on eliminating all waste in manufacturing processes.
→ There are many Lean Tools that are used for Lean Manufacturing or Production.

Lot or Batch:
→ A definite quantity of manufactured or processed products.

Lot Size:
→ The number of units in a lot or batch.

Lower Control Limit (LCL):
→ Lower Control Limit is a control limit for points below the central line in a Control Chart.

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA):
→ MBNQA is an award established by the U.S. Congress in 1987 to raise awareness of quality management.


Management Review:
→ Management Review is a meeting held at a planned interval by top management of the organization to review the stability and effectiveness of the Organization's Management System.

Mapping Symbols or Icons:
→ Mapping Symbols is an easy and effective way to communicate with the help of symbols or icons.
→ It communicates about the flow of materials and information.

Master Black Belt (MBB):
→ MBB is a problem-solving subject matter expert (SME).
→ MBB is responsible for strategic implementations in an organization.
→ This person is typically qualified to educate other people within the organization.

Mean:
→ Mean is used to get the central tendency of the data set.
→ It is determined by adding all the data points and then dividing by the total number of data points. The final number is known as the mean value.
→ In simple language, we can say as the arithmetic average of all data points.


Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF):
→ MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) is the average time interval between two failures for a repairable machine or system.

Measurement:
→ Measurement is an act or process for determining value.

Measurement System:
→ Measurement System is the combination of all operations, procedures, measuring instruments, testing equipment, personnel, and environment that are used to measure the value of product characteristics.

Median:
→ Maidan is the middle number or center value of a data set after arranging in sequence.


Mistake Proofing:
→ Mistake Proofing means to improve the product or process design to prevent mistakes from being made or passed the next operation.

Mode:
→ Mode means the highest time repeated value in the data set.
→ In other words, the value occurring most frequently in a data set.

Muda:
→ Muda is a Japanese word used for waste.
→ Any activity that consumes resources but creates no value for the customer is called Muda.


Nonconformity:
→ A Nonconformity is the nonfulfillment of a specified requirement.

Nondestructive Testing (NDT):
→ Nondestructive Testing is a testing method in which the test specimen will not damage or destroy during the testing.

Nonvalue added activity:
→ A process step for that customer is not willing to pay is called as Nonvalue added step or activity of the process.

Normal distribution (statistical):
→ A normal distribution is the arrangement of the data set.
→ In this arrangement, most of the data points are available around the average (mean) value of dataset.
→ So this kind of data arrangement forms a graph, which looks like a bell shape.

Objective:
→ A target or goal to be achieved is called Objective.


One-piece flow:
→ One-piece flow is moving one workpiece at a time between workstation or cell.

Operations:
→ Operation is process steps require to transform raw materials into finished products.

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM):
→ A company (organization) that uses different product components from one or more other supplier organizations to build a final product that it sells under its own organization name and brand or any other organization's name and brand are called OEM.
→ This final product is consumed by the end-user.

Out of control process:
→ A process in which the data points are beyond the control limit is called out of control process.

Out of specification:
→ A part or product does not meet a given requirement or specification is called out of specification.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE):
→ OEE shows us how well a manufacturing unit performs as compared to its designed capacity.
→ Overall Equipment Effectiveness is the multiplication of the machine's availability, performance rate, and quality rate.

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