7 QC Tools for Process Improvement  PDF  Case Study

→ 7 QC tools for process improvement are systematic and scientific methods for Problem Solving and they are used for Product and Process Improvement.
→ 7 QC tools is a systematic and scientific method for the Problem Solving Technique.
→ It is used to solve 90% of shop floor problems very easily and it improves our workplace.

From Where did the 7 QC Tools come?

→ Primarily Kaoru Ishikawa introduced the 7 QC Tools.
→ Ishikawa has known for the “Democratizing (Visual Aids/Symbols) Statistics”.
→ Good visual aids make statistical and quality control more comprehensive.
→ Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa was a professor at the engineering college at Tokyo University.



Why we use The 7 QC Tools for Process Improvement?

→ The 7 QC tools for Process Improvement is a set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality.
→ It is a fundamental concept to improve the process and product quality.
→ It is used to examine the production sequence, identify the key issues, control fluctuations of product quality, and give solutions to avoid future defects.
→ This facilitates the organization to resolve the basic problems.
→ These 7 QC tools are easy to understand and implement and they do not need complex analytical/ statistical competence, hence it is simple yet powerful.



What is the use of 7 QC Tools?

➝ It encourages the way of problem-solving and improvement.
➝ They are very simple to use but it is very powerful.
➝ It is a scientific approach for problem-solving.
➝ We can get an 80% result by applying 20% of the effort.
➝ Each tool has its own specialty for problem solving and analysis.
➝ It is very easy to understand, communicate, and use by the shop floor operator.

The 7 QC Tools:

  1. Flow Charts
  2. Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone or Ishikawa) 
  3. Checksheet
  4. Histogram
  5. Pareto Chart
  6. Scatter Diagram
  7. Control Chart
Note: We are considering here the Flow chart in this article as a part of 7 Basic QC Tools. Also, you can consider stratification as a part of this tool.



👉 Download 7 QC Tools PDF file



[1] Flow Charts:

→“It is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operation to be performed to get the desired result.”
→ It is a visual representation tool for a sequence of operation, therefore, we can easily illustrate the Internal and external operational boundaries.

Flow Chart


[2] Cause and Effect Diagram:

→ “It is a meaningful relationship between an effect and its causes."
→ It guides concrete action and tracks the potential causes during an investigation of the effort to determine whether the item significantly contributes to the problem or not.
→ The cause and effect tool is a very popular root cause analysis tool.
→ Fishbone diagram can identify all possible cause(s) for the problem.
→ In this tool, we can find possible causes with the help of 6M concepts such as man, machine, material, method, measurement, and mother nature.

Cause and Effect Diagram





[3] Check Sheet:

→ "Check Sheet is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data." 
→ Data collected by the check sheet is used as an input of the other tool and data can be collected based on asking a question by what, when, where, how.
→ The purpose of a checklist is to summarize the data and a tally count of event occurrences.
→ A check sheet counts the number of occurrences of an event, such as defects or non-conformance.
→ Hence the Check Sheet is also called a "tally sheet ".
→ In many cases, a checklist will summarize countable data related to certain types of defects and will provide a rough graphical representation of wherein a part of the process, defects occurred.

Check Sheet


[4] Histogram:

→ “Histogram is a type of bar graph representing the frequency distribution of the data from a process.” 
→ Karl Pearson introduced Histogram and it is a bar graph representing the frequency distribution on its every bar.
→ Histograms are used to show the output of our process matches the customer's requirements or not?
→ Also, we can take the decision based on the data patterns plotted on the graph either the process is centric or it is widespread.
→ "Is the process capable of meeting customer requirements?“
→ The histogram is the best Frequency distribution tool.
→ A histogram is a pictorial representation of a set of data.

➨ Types of Histogram:

→ Normal Distribution
→ Skewed Distribution
→ Double-Peaked or Bimodal
→ Multipeaked or Multimodal
→ Edge Peaked Histogram
→ Truncated or Heart cut Histogram
Histogram


[5] Pareto Chart:

→ "It is a bar graph arranged in descending order of height from left to right”
→ It is a graph that shows the order of the largest number of occurrences by item or by classes and the cumulative sum total.
→ The Pareto analysis helps us to prioritize where we can get more benefits by applying fewer efforts.
→ It is also very popular as a prioritization tool.
→ It communicates the principle of 80:20.
→ The Pareto Principle gives us information about Vital few from Trivial many, Hence,  It is "Vital few from Trivial many".
→ It states that 80% of an effect comes from 20% of the causes.

Pareto Chart


[6] Scatter Diagram:

→ “Scatter Diagram is used to study and identify the possible relationship between two variables”.
→ It is the best validation tool.

➨ Different names of the Scatter Diagram:

→ Scatter Plot
→ Scatter Graph
→ Correlation Graph
→ Scatter Gram

➨ Different correlation between two variables in the Scatter Plot:

→ Strong Positive
→ Moderate Positive correlation
→ Weak Positive correlation
→ Strong Negative correlation
→ Moderate Negative correlation
→ Weak Negative correlation
→ Random Pattern (No correlation)
Scatter Diagram




[7] Control Chart:

→ “It is used for studying the process variation over time." 
→ It is a plot of a process characteristic, usually through time with statistically determined limits.
→ When used for monitoring, it helps the user to determine the appropriate type of action to take on the process depending on a degree of variation.
→ Comparing above all tool this is the best forecasting tool.

Control Chart


👉 Also Read:
      2. Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone or Ishikawa)



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