Quick Summary of Terms & Definitions for Interview Part 1

→ Quick Summary of terms & definition used in Lean Manufacturing, Lean Management, Lean Six Sigma, 7 QC tools, Problem Solving Methods, etc. This will help all leaders for a quick summary.

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Acceptance number:
→ The maximum number of defects or defective products that are permissible in a sampling inspection plan is called the acceptance number.
→ The lot is accepted based on the acceptance number.
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Acceptance sampling:
→ Random inspection of no. of the sample from a whole lot to decide whether the whole lot is ok or not ok is called Acceptance Sampling.
→ This method is used at the incoming material inspection or final product inspection in mass production.
➨ There are two types of Acceptance Sampling.
     ⇢ [A] Attributes Sampling:
     ⇢ In this method, the attributes characteristic of the product is inspected.
     ⇢ [B] Variables Sampling:
     ⇢ In this method, the variable characteristic of the product is measured and recorded.

Acceptance sampling plan:
→ A specific sampling plan that indicates the sampling sizes and acceptance criteria or nonacceptance criteria are called as an Acceptance Sampling Plan.

→ As per Wikipedia, Accreditation is the process in which certification of competency, authority, or credibility is presented.

Accreditation body:
→ The accreditation body is an organization with the authority to accredit other organizations to perform services such as quality system certification, lab testing, food-grade testing, etc..

→ Accuracy is the degree of closeness of observed value with actual true value.
→ Read about the complete difference of Accuracy vs Precision.

Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP):
→ APQP is a high-level automotive process for product realization, from design through production part approval.
→ Advanced product quality planning (APQP) is a well-defined method to develop products from design to mass production in the industry.

Affinity diagram:
→ An affinity diagram is a very good tool used to organize ideas and data from mixed data.
→ It is one of the Seven Management and Planning Tools.

American Society for Quality (ASQ):
→ ASQ is a professional, not-for-profit association that develops, promotes and applies quality-related information and technology for the private sector, government and other organizations.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):
→ ASTM provides a forum for the development and publication of standards for materials, products, systems, and services, etc.

Analysis of variance (ANOVA):
→ ANOVA is a basic statistical technique used to estimate the "variation" among and between groups.

→ Andon means a visual feedback system.
→ In Japanese Andon means Light.
→ Andon helps a production operation by alerting team members if any problem generates.

Appraisal cost:
→ Appraisal cost is the cost that ensuring customers’ quality requirements.
→ In other words, it is the cost of quality control.

→ AS9100 is an international quality management standard for the aerospace industry.

→ Assessment is a systematic evaluation process.
→ It is performed by collecting and analyzing data.
→ It is used to determine the current or past performance compared with standard criteria.

Attribute data:
→ Attribute data is qualitative data that can be counted or can be said as yes or no during data recording.
→ E.g. No. of parts, No. of defects, etc.
→ Check here Attribute Data vs Variable Data

→ The on-site verification activity.
→ It is like inspection or examination, of a process or quality system, either it meets the requirements or not?

Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG):
→ AIAG is a global automotive trade association with more than 2,600 members.
→ It focuses on common business processes, implementation guidelines, education, and training.

→ An autonomation is a form of automation in which the machine itself inspects each produced item, and notify to a person if the inspected item is not ok and also stop the production.
→ It is also known as "intelligent automation" or "Automation with a human touch".

→ Benchmarking is a technique in which an organization measures its performance and compares it with the best results of similar in class organizations.
→ In this technique, an organization determines how the best in class organizations achieved their performance levels?
→ By using this information, an organization improves its own performance.

Black Belt (BB):
→ Black Belt is a full-time team leader, who is responsible for implementing various improvement projects with the help of DMAIC or DMADV methodology.
→ The project may be within a business or organization for customer satisfaction and productivity improvement.
→ Also, read about Six Sigma Project team members' roles and responsibilities.

Bottom line:
→ The bottom line is the line at the bottom of a financial report.
→ It shows the net profit or loss of the organization.

→ Brainstorming is a team used to generate ideas on a particular subject.
→ In this method, each person is asked to share his/her idea.

Breakthrough improvement:
→ Breakthrough improvement is a major improvement in the organization's respective business areas.
→ E.g. Office 365 from Microsoft, Apple's iPhone, Electric car for zero-emission, etc

→ Calibration is the comparison of a measurement value recorded by measurement instrument or system with the measurement instrument or system of known accuracy.
→ By using this method we can identify that our instrument or system shows reading within specification or it shows out of specification?

→ Capability is the ability to do things.

→ The cause is an identified reason for the presence of a defect or problem.

Cause and effect diagram:
→ The cause and effect diagram is a root cause analysis tool.
→ It is used to display the relationship between the problem and the cause of problem generation.
→ It is also known as the “Ishikawa diagram,” after the name of Dr. Ishikawa and the “fishbone diagram,” because the complete diagram looks like a fish skeleton.
→ Check complete Case study on Cause and Effect Diagram.

Cell (Manufacturing):
→ The cell is an arrangement of people, machines, materials, and equipment.
→ In this, the processing steps are placed next to each other in sequential order so that the parts are processed in a continuous flow.

Cellular manufacturing:
→ Cellular Manufacturing is all about arranging machines in the cells with correct operation sequence, with operators for manufacturing.

→ Centerline is a line on a graph that represents the overall average (mean).
→ This term is most popular in the control chart.

Central tendency:
→ The tendency of measured data gathered toward a middle value of specification is called central tendency.

→ Champion is a business leader or senior person form management who ensures resources are available for training and projects.
→ Also, he/she is involved in periodic project reviews, supports, and addresses different organizational issues.
→ Champion is also responsible for handling various improvement or problem-solving projects.

Change management:
→ The process, tools, and techniques used to manage change, including planning, validating and implementing change, and verifying the effectiveness of change.

→ A tool for organizing, summarizing and data represent in graphic form.

→ A charter is a formal, typically short document that describes the objectives of the project and how it will be carried out, and all other project-related relevant information is also included in the charter.

Check sheet:
→ A simple tool for data recording.
→ The user can design the custom template of the check sheet.
→ The check sheet is one of the popular tools of 7 QC Tools.
→ Check Different types of Check Sheets.

Concurrent engineering (CE):
→ Concurrent Engineering refers to product development in such a way that the time require for a new product launch in the market is reduced by using the concept of integration of different functions like design engineering, manufacturing engineering, and other functions
→ Sometimes Concurrent Engineering is also_known as a simultaneous engineering or integrated product development (IPD).

→ Product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract or regulation is called Conformance.

→ The consumer is the end-user of the product or service.

Control chart:
→ It is a chart with upper and lower control limits and some samples or subgroups values are plotted on it to predicting the trend of the process.
→ Read about Various types of Control Charts for process control.

Control limits:
→ Usually, Control limit is the line is drawn at a distance of ±3 standard deviations from the central line (X-double bar) in the process control chart.

Control plan (CP):
→ Control Plan is a written description of the systems for controlling part and process quality.

Coordinate measuring machine (CMM):
→ A device that dimensionally measures 3-D products, tools, and components with height accuracy.

Correlation (statistical):
→ A measure of the relationship between two data sets of variables.

Cost of poor quality (COPQ):
→ The costs associated with providing poor-quality products or services.
➨ There are four categories:
     ⇢ Internal failure costs
     ⇢ External failure costs
     ⇢ Appraisal costs, and
     ⇢ Prevention costs
→ Also, read Case Study on Cost of Poor Quality Calculation.

Corrective action:
→ Action is taken to eliminate the causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations is known as corrective action.

Critical processes:
→ Processes that contain severe effects on human life, health, and the environment are called critical processes.
→ If we lose money or customers on process failure then it is also called a critical process.

→ A cross-functional team is a team formed to perform a specific task which includes different members from the different relevant departments.

Customer delight:
→ The result of delivering a product or service that exceeds customer expectations.

→ A sequence of operations repeated regularly is called a cycle.

Cycle time:
→ The time required to complete one cycle of operation.

→ A set of collected facts.
➝ There are two basic kinds of numerical data: (1) Attribute Data & (2) Variable Data

→ A product’s or service’s nonfulfillment of an intended requirement is called a defect.
→ There are four classes of defects:
     ⇢ Class 1: Very serious - it leads directly to severe injury or terrible economic loss;
     ⇢ Class 2: Serious - it leads directly to significant injury or significant economic loss;
     ⇢ Class 3: Major - it is related to major problems, and
     ⇢ Class 4, Minor - it is related to minor problems

→ It is a unit of product that contains one or more defects with respect to the quality characteristic(s) under consideration.

Deming cycle:
→ The Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is known as a Deming cycle.

→ It is a fact-based, data-driven philosophy of improvement methodology used in the six sigma project.
→ This methodology is generally used to design new products, services, and processes.
→ It consists of five phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify.
→ Also, check DMEDI vs DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma projects

→ It is a data-driven structured methodology for improvement in process and product.
→ DMAIC stands for define, measure, analyze, improve and control phases.
→ Complete tutorial of DMAIC Methodology

→ Achieving maximum productivity with optimal resources.

Eight Disciplines (8D) model:
→ 8D is a problem-solving structured methodology.
→ This method is widely used for problem-solving tools in an Automotive Industry.
→ Refer this article 8D Methodology with Excel Template

Eight wastes:
→ In the lean concept, Taiichi Ohno originally identified seven wastes and later one more waste skill or unutilized talent is added.
→ Also, check 8 Lean wastes explained with pictorial examples.

Eighty-twenty (80-20) rule:
→ This rule is also known as the Pareto principle, which was first defined by Joseph M. Juran in 1950.
→ This principle suggests that most effects come from relatively few causes. In other words, 80% effect comes from 20% of causes.
→ Also, Read about Pareto Principles.

→ Empowerment is a condition in which employees have the authority to make decisions and take action in their work areas.

EN 46000:
→ It is a European quality management system standard for the medical device industry.

EN 9100:
→ A European quality management standard for the aerospace industry.

→ Someone who purchases products or services for their own use.

Environment management system:
→ A set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and promote environmental sustainability is called an Environment Management System.

Equipment availability:
→ The percentage of time duration in which the process or machine (equipment) is available to run is called equipment availability.
→ Equipment's availability is also known as uptime.
→ This factor is one of the most important parameters of OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness).

Error detection:
→ A mechanism is used to detect any non-conformity in product or process then it is called error detection.
→ Error detection is used when error proofing is too expensive or not easily able to implement.

Error proofing:
→ This is a mechanism, which is used to prevent mistakes from being made either in the product or in the process is called error proofing.
→ Various types of error-proofing methods explained with examples.

→ A person who functions as a teacher, coach, and moderator for a group, team or organization is called a facilitator.

→ Failure is the inability of a product or service to perform as specified criteria.

Failure cost:
→ The cost associated with the failure of a product or process is called failure cost.

Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA):
→ FMEA is a well-defined group of activities to identify and evaluate the potential failure modes or causes of a product or process and its effects.
→ After identifying failure mode or causes, the next step is to identify the solution that could eliminate or reduce the occurrence of the potential failure mode.
→ All the above-mentioned activities are maintained in a document.

→ Feedback is the communication of information from customers or users related to a process or performance.

First in, first-out (FIFO):
→ This is a very popular methodology in inventory management, in this method we have to issue (move out) the oldest material (First received in-store or warehouse).
So we can say it as a First In First Out.

Five S's (5S):
→ This is a Japenese methodology.
→  In this method, all five stages are started with Japanese terms beginning with “s” so this is known as a 5S.
→ This method is related to organize the workplace so we can work efficiently and effectively.
→ The 5S are
     ⇢ Seiri means sort
     ⇢ Seiton means set in order
     ⇢ Seiso means to shine or clean
     ⇢ Seiketsu means standardize
     ⇢ Shitsuke means sustain
→ Also, read 5S Methodology with pictorial representation

Five whys:
→ Five whys are also_known as to why why analysis and this technique is used to find out the root causes of a problem.
It also shows the relation between cause and problem.
In this method, we can find out the root cause of a problem by asking simple questions with "why?" till the root cause.

→ The flow chart is a graphical representation of the steps in a process.
→ It is also known as Process Flow Diagram or Flow Chart.

Gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R):
→ GRR is a study that is used to determine the amount of variation in the measurement data due to variation in the measurement system.
→ We can measure Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GRR) with the help of equipment and appraiser variation.

Gantt chart:
→ We can easily understand the Gantt chart as it is a horizontal bar chart.
→ Gantt chart is used to track the operation flow/project planning timeline.
→ It is also called a milestone chart when interim checkpoints are added to this.

Gap analysis:
→ The gap analysis is what is the desired state and what is the current condition.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T):
→ It is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances.
→ GD&T is a symbolic language on engineering drawings.

→ A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, plan and commit to achieving.
→ People try to reach goals within a finite time by setting deadlines.

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