Quick Summary of Terms & Definitions for Interview Part 4

→ Quick Summary of terms & definitions used in Lean Manufacturing, Lean Management, Lean Six Sigma, 7 QC tools, Problem-Solving Methods, etc. This will help all leaders with a quick summary.

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Scatter Diagram:
→ A graphical technique to analyze the relationship between two variables.
Scatter Diagram is the most popular validation tool.
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Seven new management and planning tools:
→ Seven new management and planning tools are used to promote innovation, communicate information, and successfully plan major projects.
→ The Seven Management Tools are:
     ⇢ [1] Affinity Diagram
     ⇢ [2] Interrelationship diagram
     ⇢ [3] Tree diagram
     ⇢ [4] Prioritization matrix
     ⇢ [5] Matrix diagram
     ⇢ [6] Process decision program chart
     ⇢ [7] Activity network diagram

Seven Basic Quality Control Tools:
→ Seven Basic QC Tools are scientific and systematic methods for process improvement and problem-solving.
→ They are used to solve around 90% of workplace-related problems very easily.
→ The Seven Basic Quality_Control Tools are:
     ⇢ [1] Flow Chart
     ⇢ [2] Cause and Effect Diagram
     ⇢ [3] Pareto Chart
     ⇢ [4] Check Sheet
     ⇢ [5] Scatter Diagram
     ⇢ [6] Control_Chart
     ⇢ [7] Histogram

Single-minute exchange of dies:
→ Single-minute exchange of die (SMED) is one of the most popular lean approaches for reducing waste during product or process changeover.
→ It provides a rapid and efficient way of changing the current setup to the next product_setup.
→ The word "single minute" does not mean that all changeovers should take only one minute, but that they should take time in minutes in single-digit or we can also say that time should be less than 10 minutes.

Single Piece Flow:
Single Piece Flow refers to the concept of moving one workpiece at a time between a work station.

SIPOC diagram:
→ SIPOC diagram is a tool used by Six Sigma process improvement teams to identify all relevant elements of a process improvement project before work begins.
→ It shows the relation between suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers.
→ This tool is used during the Define phase of the Six Sigma Project.

Social Responsibility:
→ The concept that business entities should balance profit-making activities with activities that benefit society.

Special causes:
→ Causes of variation that arise because of special circumstances.
→ E.g. unplanned breakdown of machines

→ The specification is defined acceptance criteria of product, process, or service that must be confirmed by the_product, process, or service.

→ The person who supports a team’s plans, activities, and outcomes is known as a sponsor.

Standard Deviation (Statistical):
→ The standard deviation is a measure of the amount of variation of data set with respect to mean.
→ A low standard deviation indicates that the values are closed to mean of the data set.
→ A high standard deviation indicates that the values are spread in a wide range.

→ Standardization refers to policies and common procedures are used to manage processes throughout the system.

Statistical Process Control (SPC):
Statistical Process_Control is a method of quality_control that uses statistical methods to monitor and control a process.

Statistical Quality Control (SQC):
→ Statistical Quality Control is a statistical technique for quality control.

→ Stratification is the act of sorting data, people and objects into distinct groups or layers.

SWOT analysis:
→ SWOT analysis is the analysis related to the organization's risk with the help of different criteria like Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats.

→ A group of interdependent processes and people that work together to perform a common mission is known as a system.

Taguchi Method:
→ The Taguchi method is a statistical method that is used to improve the quality of manufactured goods.
→ This method is developed by Genichi Taguchi.
→ Recently it is also applied to engineering, biotechnology, marketing, and advertising industries.

Takt time:
→ Takt time is the maximum time requires to produce the_product and satisfy the customer's demand.
→ Takt time = Net available time (minute) / customer demand (No. of product)

→ A specific, definable activity to perform an assigned piece of work, often finished within a certain time.

→ In general terms, throughput is the rate of production or the rate at which something is processed from raw material to final_product.
→ Finally, throughput is the amount of material or items passing through a system or process.

→ Tolerance is the maximum and minimum acceptable limit values of a product specification which is given by the customer or defined by the organization.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM):
→ TPM is a systematic approach to maintain and improve the performance of the process, safety, product_quality, and employee satisfaction.
→ The main focus of the Total Productive Maitenance (TPM) is to maintain all machine is ready to work condition.

Total Quality Control (TQC):
→ Total Quality Control is a system that integrates quality development, maintenance, and improvement of the_product.

Total Quality Management (TQM):
→ Total quality management (TQM) is an effort to implement a culture of continuous improvement. In which the employees continuously improve the_product and services and customers will find particular value of product and service.

Toyota Production System (TPS):
→ The production system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation to provide the best quality of the product at the lowest cost and shortest lead time by eliminating waste.

Tree Diagram:
→ Tree Diagram is a management tool that represents the hierarchy of tasks and subtasks needed to complete an objective.
→ The finished diagram looks like a tree.

→ The graphical representation of a variable’s tendency, over time.
→ It may increase, decrease or remain unchanged with respect to the time.

Upper control limit (UCL):
→ The upper control limit is the control limit for points above the central line in a control chart.

→ Validation is the act of confirming a product or service meets the requirements for which it was intended.
→ We can validate_product or service based on its actual application.

Value-added activity:
→ Value-added activities transform input into an output that is required by the customer.
→ In other words, we can say that for which activity customer is willing to pay is called as a value-added activity.

Value analysis:
→ Analyzing the value stream to identify value-added and nonvalue added activities.

Value Engineering:
→ Analyzing the components and processes that create a product, with an emphasis on minimizing costs while maintaining standards required by the customer.

→ The fundamental beliefs that drive organizational behavior and decision making.

Value Stream:
→ The value stream includes all activities from customer order to delivery of the product.

Value Stream Mapping:
Value Stream Mapping is a graphical tool that helps us to see and understand the flow of process and information as a product and service.
→ It is an improvement tool that is visualizing the entire operation of manufacturing or service representing both material and information flow.

Variable data:
→ Variable data is observed or measured to any decimal place you want (if your measurement system allows it).
→ It is also called as continuous data.
→ Examples: length, width, height, of the product, density of the liquid, the weight of the_product, etc.
→ Also, read about Variable data vs Attribute data

→ Variation is a change in data, characteristic or function.
→ It is caused by any of the below four factors:
     ⇢ Special causes,
     ⇢ Common causes,
     ⇢ Tampering. or
     ⇢ Structural variation

→ Verification is the act of determining whether products and services conform to specific requirements or not?
→ We can verify the product based on the drawing (specification).

Voice of the customer (VOC):
→ The communicated requirements and expectations of customers relative to products or services, as documented and circulated to the providing organization’s members.

→ Any activity that consumes resources and produces no added value to the product or service that is received by a customer is known as waste.
→ Also known as Muda.

Zero defects:
→ Zero defects mean there is no waste existing in a product or process.

👉 See Also:


  1. Thank you very much for this great effort of collecting the terms related to Industrial Engineering. I have no words to appriciate your work. Keep it up and thanks again.

  2. Tq sir for big support and you are the main puller of the industry engineering

  3. Tq sir for big support and you are the main puller of the industry engineering

  4. Very Great . Thanks for summarising the catchy key words with definition .
    Good work, useful to almost everyoe

    1. Thank you very much for your kind feedback and also most welcome!!!


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