Quick Summary of Terms & Definitions for Interview Part 4

→ Quick Summary of terms & definition used in Lean Manufacturing, Lean Management, Lean Six Sigma, 7 QC tools, Problem Solving Methods, etc. This will help all leaders for a quick summary.

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Scatter Diagram:
→ A graphical technique to analyze the relationship between two variables.
Scatter Diagram is the most popular validation tool.

Seven new management and planning tools:
→ Seven new management and planning tools are used to promote innovation, communicate information and successfully plan major projects.
→ The Seven Management Tools are:
     ⇢ [1] Affinity Diagram
     ⇢ [2] Interrelationship diagram
     ⇢ [3] Tree diagram
     ⇢ [4] Prioritization matrix
     ⇢ [5] Matrix diagram
     ⇢ [6] Process decision program chart
     ⇢ [7] Activity network diagram


Seven Basic Quality Control Tools:
→ Seven Basic QC Tools are scientific and systematic methods for process improvement and problem-solving.
→ They are used to solve around 90% of the workplace-related problems very easily.
→ The Seven Basic Quality_Control Tools are:
     ⇢ [1] Flow Chart
     ⇢ [2] Cause and Effect Diagram
     ⇢ [3] Pareto Chart
     ⇢ [4] Check Sheet
     ⇢ [5] Scatter Diagram
     ⇢ [6] Control_Chart
     ⇢ [7] Histogram

Single-minute exchange of dies:
→ Single-minute exchange of die (SMED) is one of the most popular lean approaches for reducing waste during product or process changeover.
→ It provides a rapid and efficient way of changing the current setup to the next product_setup.
→ The word "single minute" does not mean that all changeovers should take only one minute, but that they should take time in minutes in single-digit or we can also say that time should be less than 10 minutes.

Single Piece Flow:
Single Piece Flow refers to the concept of moving one workpiece at a time between a work station.

SIPOC diagram:
→ SIPOC diagram is a tool used by Six Sigma process improvement teams to identify all relevant elements of a process improvement project before work begins.
→ It shows the relation between suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers.
→ This tool is used during the Define phase of the Six Sigma Project.

Social Responsibility:
→ The concept that business entities should balance profit-making activities with activities that benefit society.

Special causes:
→ Causes of variation that arise because of special circumstances.
→ E.g. unplanned breakdown of machines

Specification:
→ The specification is defined acceptance criteria of product, process, or service that must be confirmed by the_product, process, or service.


Sponsor:
→ The person who supports a team’s plans, activities, and outcomes is known as a sponsor.

Standard Deviation (Statistical):
→ The standard deviation is a measure of the amount of variation of data set with respect to mean.
→ A low standard deviation indicates that the values are closed to mean of the data set.
→ A high standard deviation indicates that the values are spread in a wide range.

Standardization:
→ Standardization refers to policies and common procedures are used to manage processes throughout the system.

Statistical Process Control (SPC):
Statistical Process_Control is a method of quality_control that uses statistical methods to monitor and control a process.

Statistical Quality Control (SQC):
→ Statistical Quality Control is a statistical technique for quality control.

Stratification:
→ Stratification is the act of sorting data, people and objects into distinct groups or layers.

SWOT analysis:
→ SWOT analysis is the analysis related to the organization's risk with the help of different criteria like Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats.

System:
→ A group of interdependent processes and people that work together to perform a common mission is known as a system.


Taguchi Method:
→ The Taguchi method is a statistical method that is used to improve the quality of manufactured goods.
→ This method is developed by Genichi Taguchi.
→ Recently it is also applied to engineering, biotechnology, marketing, and advertising industries.

Takt time:
→ Takt time is the maximum time requires to produce the_product and satisfy the customer's demand.
→ Takt time = Net available time (minute) / customer demand (No. of product)

Task:
→ A specific, definable activity to perform an assigned piece of work, often finished within a certain time.

Throughput:
→ In general terms, throughput is the rate of production or the rate at which something is processed from raw material to final_product.
→ Finally, throughput is the amount of material or items passing through a system or process.

Tolerance:
→ Tolerance is the maximum and minimum acceptable limit values of a product specification which is given by the customer or defined by the organization.

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM):
→ TPM is a systematic approach to maintain and improve the performance of the process, safety, product_quality, and employee satisfaction.
→ The main focus of the Total Productive Maitenance (TPM) is to maintain all machine is ready to work condition.

Total Quality Control (TQC):
→ Total Quality Control is a system that integrates quality development, maintenance, and improvement of the_product.


Total Quality Management (TQM):
→ Total quality management (TQM) is an effort to implement a culture of continuous improvement. In which the employees continuously improve the_product and services and customers will find particular value of product and service.

Toyota Production System (TPS):
→ The production system developed by Toyota Motor Corporation to provide the best quality of the product at the lowest cost and shortest lead time by eliminating waste.

Tree Diagram:
→ Tree Diagram is a management tool that represents the hierarchy of tasks and subtasks needed to complete an objective.
→ The finished diagram looks like a tree.

Trend:
→ The graphical representation of a variable’s tendency, over time.
→ It may increase, decrease or remain unchanged with respect to the time.


Upper control limit (UCL):
→ The upper control limit is the control limit for points above the central line in a control chart.

Validation:
→ Validation is the act of confirming a product or service meets the requirements for which it was intended.
→ We can validate_product or service based on its actual application.

Value-added activity:
→ Value-added activities transform input into an output that is required by the customer.
→ In other words, we can say that for which activity customer is willing to pay is called as a value-added activity.

Value analysis:
→ Analyzing the value stream to identify value-added and nonvalue added activities.

Value Engineering:
→ Analyzing the components and processes that create a product, with an emphasis on minimizing costs while maintaining standards required by the customer.

Values:
→ The fundamental beliefs that drive organizational behavior and decision making.

Value Stream:
→ The value stream includes all activities from customer order to delivery of the product.


Value Stream Mapping:
Value Stream Mapping is a graphical tool that helps us to see and understand the flow of process and information as a product and service.
→ It is an improvement tool that is visualizing the entire operation of manufacturing or service representing both material and information flow.

Variable data:
→ Variable data is observed or measured to any decimal place you want (if your measurement system allows it).
→ It is also called as continuous data.
→ Examples: length, width, height, of the product, density of the liquid, the weight of the_product, etc.
→ Also, read about Variable data vs Attribute data

Variation:
→ Variation is a change in data, characteristic or function.
→ It is caused by any of the below four factors:
     ⇢ Special causes,
     ⇢ Common causes,
     ⇢ Tampering. or
     ⇢ Structural variation


Verification:
→ Verification is the act of determining whether products and services conform to specific requirements or not?
→ We can verify the product based on the drawing (specification).

Voice of the customer (VOC):
→ The communicated requirements and expectations of customers relative to products or services, as documented and circulated to the providing organization’s members.

Waste:
→ Any activity that consumes resources and produces no added value to the product or service that is received by a customer is known as waste.
→ Also known as Muda.

Zero defects:
→ Zero defects mean there is no waste existing in a product or process.

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