TPM | Total Productive Maintenance

What is TPM [Total Productive Maintenance]?

→ TPM - Total Productive Maintenance is a systematic approach to maintain and improve the performance of the process, safety, product quality, and employee satisfaction.
→ The main focus of TPM is to maintain all equipment is ready to work condition and also to avoid breakdowns and delays in manufacturing processes.
→ It emphasizes proactive and preventative maintenance to maximize the operational efficiency of the equipment.
→ Total Productive Maintenance eliminates the gap between the roles of production people and maintenance people by empowering operators to maintain their equipment by themselves.
→ So the TPM is all about the attitude from “I use, You maintain” to “I use, I maintain”.
→ Total Productive Maintenance is a Continuous Improvement program.
→ TPM is a proactive process.
→ It works to prevent problems from occurring, instead of responding to problems.

History of TPM:

→ Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) was developed by Seiichi Nakajima in Japan between 1950 and 1970.
→ Therefore Seiichi Nakajima is known as the father of the TPM.
→ Nippondenso was the first company to get benefit by implementing TPM.
→ TPM is all about the small group improvement activity.
→ The benchmark of Total Productive Maintenance is developed by (Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance) JIPM.
→ The Seiichi Nakajima developed TPM concept of 5 principles, later on, it was enhanced by JIPM with 8 principles/pillars.

Objectives of TPM:

→ Improve the effectiveness of the equipment
→ To train all staff in relevant maintenance skills
→ To achieve early equipment management
→ Higher plant availability
→ Higher Reliability
→ Increase the safety of personnel and a safe working environment
Better Quality Product or no defect generation
→ Increase the life cycle of an equipment
→ Greater cost-effectiveness
→ No Breakdowns
→ Eliminate Small Stops or Slow Running

The Working Principle of TPM:

→ Traditionally, maintenance departments have been responsible for the maintenance of equipment.
→ In the TPM approach, all workers have to actively involved in maintaining the equipment.
→ Employees are trained to maintain the equipment and improve Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE).
→ This is a foolproof system that prevents breakdowns and eliminates defects.
→ If any breakdown happens then it is quickly addressed, and the cause is eliminated by improving the equipment.
→ Implementation of 5S is the foundation of successful implementation of TPM.

Eight Pillars of TPM:

→ It is mostly focused on proactive and preventive techniques for improving equipment reliability:
→ The eight pillars of TPM are mentioned below.
  1. Autonomous Maintenance [Jishu Hozen]
  2. Focused Improvement [Kobetsu Kaizen]
  3. Planned Maintenance
  4. Quality Management or Maintenance
  5. Early Equipment Management
  6. Education and Training
  7. Administrative & Office TPM
  8. Safety, Health, and Environment

Pillar 01: Autonomous Maintenance [Jishu Hozen]

Autonomous Maintenance [Jishu Hozen] Pillar

→ Autonomous maintenance allows operators to carry out directly simple maintenance works by themselves to prevent breakdowns and take faster action if a certain failure has been detected.
→ This is also known as a Jishu Hozen.
→ In Autonomous Maintenance (Jishu Hozen) the C-L-I-T Method is very famous.
→ The word CLIT stands for Cleaning, Lubrication Inspection, and Tightening.
→ It is one of the major activity of the operator before starting his daily work.
→ The purpose of this pillar is to provide training for each operator to minimize the gap between maintenance personnel & machine operators.
→ In this pillar, the development of operators to handle initial maintenance requirements and tasks which are regularly required to maintain smooth operations.
→ Hence the maintenance peoples can divert and spend time on more value-added activities and technical maintenance.
→ In this concept focus on, each equipment operator is responsible, for maintenance and prevention of its equipment.
→ Autonomous Maintenance program's target is:
→ Proper management, and bring equipment return to its ideal condition by restoration, replacement, and maintenance.

Key Point for Autonomous Maintenance:

→ Educate employee
→ Implement C-L-I-T Method
→ Take Action on Counter Measure
→ General Inspection
→ Autonomous Inspection
→ Standardize the work

Benefits of Autonomous Maintenance:

→ Reduce the performance losses
→ Improve overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)
→ Improvement to employee engagement, confidence, and equipment ownership.
→ Responsibility is defined so the operators have clarity about their work
→ Gives operators greater “ownership” of their equipment.
→ Identifies emergent issues before they become failures.

Pillar 02: Focused Improvement [Kobetsu Kaizen]

Focused Improvement [Kobetsu Kaizen] Pillar

→ In the Japanese Language, Focused Improvement is called as a "Kobetsu Kaizen".
→ Kobetsu kaizen means prioritizing the most important losses and eliminating them.
→ Focused improvement is the initial pillar of the total productive maintenance system, it is focused on improvement on the whole system with the cumulative effort of a team.
→ Their goal is to maximize the effectivity of the equipment and decrease the company's losses and waste.
→ Small groups of person work together for improvements.
→ Organizational complex issues can possible through implementation of focused improvement step, generally, this pillar follows structured system support of the PDCA cycle to identify and eliminate issues by the systematic way.
→ This pillar ensures that the manpower has the skills and motivation to identify and reduce wastes from their processes and systems.

Benefits of Focused Improvement:

→ Improving efficiency by reducing defects in product, processes, and system
→ Improving safety performance by reducing risk factors in processes by analyzing risk levels and appropriate actions
→ The focused improvement pillar ensures that the approach taken in consistent and repeatable to assure sustainability
→ Recurring problems are identified and resolved by cross-functional teams.

Pillar 03: Planned Maintenance

Planned Maintenance Pillar

→ The purpose of planned maintenance is to improve the effectiveness of equipment and produce zero defective products.
→ This can be achieved by focusing on preventive maintenance, breakdown maintenance, corrective and maintenance prevention system.
→ The reliability, maintainability, and performance are also improved by Planned Maintenance.
→ We can plan our maintenance schedule with the help of measured failure rates.
→ Planned Maintenance follows a well-defined process for the equipment's maintenance.
→The Goals of the planned maintenance are Zero break downs, to reduce MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) & Increase MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure).
→ That means to produce 100% product without any defect due to machine and equipment.

Benefits of Planned maintenance:

→ Reduction of the equipment breakdowns and with minimum product defects.
→ Improve machine efficiency.
→ Improve Reliability and maintainability of equipment.
→ Significantly reduces instances of unplanned stop time.
→ The quality of the part is maintained,
→ Increase in production up-time,
→ Reduced cost of operations,
→ Reduced maintenance costs.

Pillar 04: Quality Management or Quality Maintenance

Quality Maintenance Pillar

→ The fundamental concept of Quality Maintenance is to develop error detection mechanism and error prevention mechanism into production processes.
→ Apply Root Cause Analysis Method like Fishbone Diagram or Why Why analysis method for finding out the root cause and apply preventive action to eliminate recurring sources of quality defects.
→ We can reduce cost by detecting defects at an early stage.
→ The process can be controlled by applying control mainly on man, machine, material, and method.
→ The aim is to prevent defect rather than it occurs and detect.
→ If defect prevention is not possible in that case we can think about the detection of the defect.
→ Zero equipment breakdown and maintenance leads production without defect or also called zero quality defect.
→ By observing the variations of running machine can help us to prevent the defect from machine failure.
→ Everyone is responsible for maintaining optimal conditions and target for zero defects.
→ Defects become a failure of the organization’s systems, not the fault of the operator.

Two Phases of Quality Maintenance:

1. Quality Control or Reactive Approach
2. Quality Assurance or Proactive Approach

Benefits of Quality Maintenance:

→ Quality Maintenance reduces the Cost of Quality
→ It reduces the poor quality wastes and reworks
→ Customer complain reduce by improving the product's quality

Pillar 05: Early Equipment Management

Early Equipment Management Pillar

→ Early Equipment Management (EEM) is a well-organized process.
→ It focuses on reducing the difficulties related to the operation and maintenance activity of equipment.
→ Early Equipment Management guides for the design and manufacture of equipment.
→ Early Management aims to implement new products and processes with minimum development lead time and easy mass-produced.
→ The main goal is a defect-free product and zero breakdowns.

Two Parts of Early Equipment Management pillar:

  1. Early Equipment Management
  2. Early Product Management
→ Both approaches focus on using the lessons from previous experiences to eliminate the potential failure modes during the planning, development and design stages.
→ New products must be designed as foolproof so that the product run can be smooth.
→ New machines must be designed for easier operations, changeover, and maintenance

Benefits of Early Equipment Management:

→ Reduce the product and process setup lead time.
→ Improve Overall Equipment Effectiveness
→ Able to deliver mass product volume with good product quality.

Pillar 06: Training and Education:

Training and Education Pillar

→ Training is the most important for achieve TPM goal.
→ It applies to all operator, supervisors, and managers.
→ Operators develop skills to maintain equipment and identify emerging problems.
→ Maintenance person learns techniques for proactive and preventative maintenance.
→ Training and Education ensure that the staff is trained as per required skillset.
→ The skill is identified by the managers and it helps in the successful deployment of TPM in line with the organization’s goals and objectives.
→ The goal of the Training and Education pillar is the factory run with trained and skilled manpower.

Different Levels of Skills:

  1. Do not know.
  2. Know the theory but cannot do.
  3. Can do but cannot teach 
  4. Can do and also teach.

Benefits of Training and Education:

→ Increased skills and performance of all personnel.
→ Without this pillar, the impact of other pillars will not be sustainable.
→ Without training the human potential creates significant waste within an organization.
→ By training, we can have multi-skilled employees.
→ By training and education the operator and supervisor can do work with more efficiency, with effectiveness, and independently.

Pillar 07: Administrative and Office TPM

Administrative and Office TPM

→ This pillar is about to apply TPM techniques to administrative functions.
→ The purpose of this pillar is to achieve zero function losses, the establishment of efficient offices and implementation of service support functions for manufacturing processes.
→ Make all supportive functions to understand and apply the principles of lean in their own operations.
→ The TPM principles can also be applied as stand-alone techniques to improve the efficiency of these supportive functions.
→ By implementing office TPM we can improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions.

Some of the major losses of office TPM:

→ Processing loss
→ Cost loss in some process such as procurement, accounts, marketing, sales leading to high inventories
→ Communication loss
→ Idle loss
→ Set-up loss
→ Accuracy loss
→ Non-availability of correct online stock status
→ Expenses on emergency dispatches/purchases etc...

Benefits of Office TPM:

→ Better utilized work area
→ Reduce repetitive work and inventory level of all products in the entire supply chain
→ Reduced administrative and overhead costs
→ Reduction in breakdown of office equipment and customer complain due to logistics.
→ We can reduce the expenses due to emergency dispatches/purchases

Pillar 08: Safety, Health, Environment

Safety, Health, Environment Pillar

→ This pillar is all about to maintain a safe and healthy working environment.
→ The target of this pillar is zero accident, zero health damage, and zero fire.
→ So the workers must be able to perform their functions in a safe environment without any health risks.
→ By implementing this pillar, it eliminates potential health and safety-related risks.
→ This pillar ensures that all workers are working in a safe and accident-free work environment.
→ When workers are working in a safe environment then their attitude towards work changes and it increases productivity.
→ Each of these measures is aimed at improving the safety of the machines so as to have a more productive work-force.
→ We can create awareness among employees by various competitions like safety slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc.
→ By this activity we can improve related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.

Benefits of Safety, Health, Environment:

→ It provides a safe and accident-free working environment.
→ Safety, Health, and Environment pillar create an efficient and effective work environment.
→ It improves employee's motivation.
→ In a safe environment, employees attitude towards work changes dramatically resulting in productivity, Quality, and Delivery Performance improvements.
→ The immediate benefits of implementation of this pillar are the prevention of accident and incidents, environmental system failures, and financial costs saving due to containment, investigation, and compensation to the organization.
→ This can be enhancing sustainability in the organization.

Summary of TPM [Total Productive Maintenance]:

1. Autonomous Maintenance [Jishu Hozen]
→ Operators take care of equipment and basic maintenance of equipment.
→ Operators feel responsible for their machines, equipment becomes more reliable.

2. Focused Improvement [Kobetsu Kaizen]
→ Use of cross-functional teams for improvement activities.
→ Improves problem-solving capabilities of the workers.

3. Planned Maintenance
→ Maintenance scheduled using the historic failure rate of the equipment.
→ Maintenance can be scheduled when production activities are less.

4. Quality Maintenance
→ Quality deep-rooted with the equipment to reduce defects.
→ Defect reduction & profit improvement.

5. Early Equipment Maintenance
→ Design of new equipment using the lesson learned from previous TPM activities.
→ New equipment achieves full potential in a shorter period of time.

6. Education & Training
→ Improvement of the skills and knowledge through training of all workers.
→ Employees gain the necessary skills to enable them to solve problems within the organization.

7. Health, Safety & Environment
→ Providing a healthy and safe working environment.
→ Elimination of harmful conditions & a healthy workforce.

8. TPM in the Office
→ The spread of the TPM principles to administrative functions within an organization.

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