APQP Advanced Product Quality Planning 5 Phases

What is APQP [Advanced Product Quality Planning]?

→ APQP [Advanced Product Quality Planning] is a structured approach that is used to design and develop the product and_process to meet customer needs and expectations.
→ Advanced Product Quality Planning tool is extensively used by Automotive industries to assure quality and performance through effective planning.
→ In other words, APQP is a framework for developing new_product
→ More precisely we can say this method is rigorously used in the automotive industry.
→ This method is very much similar to the concept of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).
→ As per AIAG, this tool is to help us to prepare a product quality plan to fulfill all requirements of the_product and satisfy our customers.
→ APQP is one of the important tools among the Five Core Tools of IATF 16949 Standard.

History of APQP:

→ The "Big Three" [Ford, GM, and Chrysler.] has developed the_process of advanced product_quality planning in the late 1980s.
→ Initially, the representatives from the Big Three and the Automotive Division of American Society for Quality Control (ASQC) have developed the guidelines for the Quality Requirements of automotive suppliers. This is a common criterion for all suppliers.
→ Today, APQP is adopted by many automotive industries.
→ Tier 1 suppliers of automotive OEMs are generally required to follow the APQP_guideline.
→ This will be audited during the certification of  IATF16949.
→ The Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) is a non-profit organization of automotive companies founded in 1982.
→ This technique is being used in other manufacturing industries.
→ This is controlled and published by AIAG.
→ It is also known as the Five Core Tools of IATF 16949.



➨ The Five Core Tools of IATF 16949:

  1. Advanced Product Quality Planning - APQP_Manual
  2. Production Part Approval Process - PPAP Manual
  3. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis - FMEA Manual
  4. Measurement System Analysis - MSA Manual
  5. Statistical Process Control - SPC Manual

Objectives of APQP

→ Facilitate effective communication with everyone involved in the APQP_process.
→ Timely Completion of all required steps.
→ No or minimum quality complaints.
→ Assure product_quality, process_quality, and performance.
→ Meeting customer’s requirements




Main Focus Points of APQP

→ Understanding the customer's need & expectation
→ APQP_focus on Proactive approach and corrective action
→ Designing within the process_capabilities
→ Analyzing and mitigating failure modes
→ Verification and validation and design_reviews
→ Control special/critical characteristics.

What is the APQP time plan?

→ The APQP_Time Plan is mentioned in the below picture.
APQP_Time Plan

What are the 5 phases of APQP?

→ The Five Phases of APQP are mentioned below.
  1. Plan & define program
  2. Product design & development
  3. Process Design_and Development
  4. Product and Process Validation
  5. Feedback, Assessment & Corrective Action

5 Phases of APQP



Phase 1: Plan & define program

→ The purpose of this_phase is to ensure that customer’s needs and expectations are clearly understood.

➨ Inputs of this_phase:
  • Understand the Voice of the customer
  • Market research
  • Historical warranty & quality_information
  • Team experience
  • Business plan/marketing strategy
  • Product_& process_Benchmark data
  • Product_& process_Assumptions
  • Product_Reliability studies
  • Customer inputs-such as Product_Identification & traceability, Special characteristics, and Packaging requirements, etc.
➨ Outputs of this_phase
  • Design_goals
  • Reliability & quality goals
  • Preliminary bill of material-BOM
  • Preliminary process flow chart-PFC
  • A preliminary listing of special_product & process_characteristics
  • Product_Quality Assurance_plan
  • Management support

APQP_Phase 1



Phase 2: Product design & development

→ The purpose of this_phase is to develop design features into nearly the final form of the product.

➨ Inputs: Inputs of Phase_2 are the Outputs of Phase_1.

➨ Outputs of Phase 2:

  • DFMEA – Design Failure Mode & Effects Analysis
  • DFMA or DMA – Design for Manufacturability & Assembly
  • DVP & R – Design Verification_Plan and Report
  • Design Verification through Prototype Model
  • Design verification through Product_Testing
  • Prototype control_plan
  • Engineering drawings review
  • Engineering specifications review
  • Material specifications review
  • Drawing & specification changes
  • Target setting for Productivity and Process_capability
  • Gauge /Testing Equipment Requirements
  • New Tooling/Equipment and Facilities requirement review
  • Team Feasibility Commitment Sign off

APQP_Phase 2




Phase 3: Process Design and Development

→ The purpose of this_phase is to develop an effective management system to assure that customer’s needs and expectations are met.

➨ Inputs: Inputs of Phase 3 are the Outputs of Phase 2.

➨ Outputs:

  • PFD – Process Flow Diagram
  • PFMEA – Process failure mode and effects analysis
  • Pre-Launch Control_Plan
  • Floor plan layout
  • Packaging standards
  • Measurement System Analysis_Plan
  • Data for Quality, Reliability, Measurability, and Maintainability
  • Method of rapid detection and feedback
  • Result of Error-proofing activities

APQP_Phase 3



Phase 4: Product and Process Validation

→ The purpose of this_phase is to validate the manufacturing_process with the help of a production trial run and to finalize the Production control plan.

➨ Inputs: Inputs of Phase 4 are the Outputs of Phase 3

➨ Outputs:




APQP_Phase 4


Phase 5: Feedback, Assessment & Corrective Action

→ The aim of this_phase is to make continual improvements in the Product_and Process to enhance customer satisfaction levels.

➨ Inputs: Inputs of Phase 5 are the Outputs of Phase 4.

➨ Outputs:
  • Reduced Variation (Common and Special cause of Variations)
  • Improved  Customer Satisfaction
  • Improved Delivery and Services
  • Effective Use of Lessons Learn/ Best Practices
  • Activities include in this_phase to enhance customer satisfaction are:
  • Evaluation of the Effectiveness of APQP_Efforts based on customer feedback.
  • Making the necessary changes to correct non-conformance/deficiencies.
  • Continuation of Customer and Supplier partnership.
  • Organization participation in problem-solving and continuous improvement activities.
  • APQP_Timing Chart

APQP_Phase 5



Benefits of APQP

→ Increase Customer Satisfaction level
→ Early identification of required changes
→ Changes after product_launch are avoided
→ On-time delivery of quality_products with competitive prices.


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