MSA Measurement System Analysis

What is MSA (Measurement System Analysis)?

→ "An MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is a statistical tool used to determine if a the measurement system is capable of precise measurement or not ?."

1) Basics of MSA (Measurement System Analysis):

     ➧ We use various measuring instruments & gauges to judge the dimensional quality of Incoming, In-Process and Finished Production parts.
     ➧ These gauges and instruments have to be Precise and Accurate to give results of a higher confidence level.
     ➧ To build this confidence, we have to calibrate these gauges/instruments periodically to achieve Accuracy and Precision.

     ➧ Below measuring instrument has a definite numerical scale to measure the numerical dimensions of the component.
     ➧ E.g., Vernier, Micrometer, Dial indicator, Height Gauges…..

     ➧ Vernier        : Range: 0 – 200 mm L.C: 0.02mm; 0.01mm
     ➧ Micrometer Range: 0 -25; 25 – 50    L.C: 0.01mm; 0.001mm

→ "Resolution" is the smallest unit of measurement that can be indicated by an instrument.
→ "Sensitivity" is the smallest amount of difference in a quantity that will change an instrument's reading. 
     ➧ E.g. a measuring tape have a resolution, but not sensitivity. 
               an analytical balance will have both issues

     ➧ While selecting equipment, following basic points need to be considered :
     ➧ Range,
     ➧ Least Count,
     ➧ Accuracy and other relevant factors shall be considered.
     ➧ If we have a tolerance of 0.100 of a component, we should use the instrument with Least Count of 0.010 mm. (which means the least count of the instrument should be 1/10th the tolerance range.)

2) Terminologies used in MSA (Measurement System Analysis):

     ➧ There are certain terminologies which should be understood for better use of Gauges and Instruments in MSA (Measurement System Analysis).
     ➧ Some of the common terminology used in MSA (Measurement System Analysis) are:
        1. Precision
        2. Accuracy
        3. Bias
        4. Stability
        5. Linearity
        6. Repeatability
        7. Reproducibility
MSA Measurement System Analysis

3) Why MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is required?

     ➧ MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is required to understand the impact of these measurement systems on your operations.
     ➧ MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is extremely important in continuous process improvement.
     ➧ We must measure to know where we are.
     ➧ We use measurements to tell us if there is a problem or not in the process.
     ➧ For measurements to be effective, they must be timely, accurate, and precise.
     ➧ Many of our customers, both internal and external, rely on our measurements.

4) The MSA (Measurement System Analysis) includes:

      ➧ Standard
      ➧ Work Piece
      ➧ Instrument
      ➧ Personnel / Procedure to use equipment
      ➧ Environment under which to conduct the measurement.
      ➧ i.e. SWIPE
MSA Measurement System Analysis

      ➧ MSA (Measurement System Analysis) deals with analyzing the effect of the Measurement system on the measured value.
      ➧ Its Emphasis is on the effect due to equipment & personnel
      ➧ We test the system to determine the numerical values of its statistical properties and compare them to Accepted Standards
      ➧ An MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is a statistical tool used to determine if a measurement system is capable of precise measurement or not?

5) Objective or Purpose of MSA (Measurement System Analysis):

      ➧ To determine how much error is in the measurement due to the measurement process itself.
      ➧ Quantifies the variability added by the measurement system.
      ➧ Applicable to attribute data and variable data.
      ➧ Conducting an MSA (Measurement System Analysis)reduces the likelihood of passing a bad part or rejecting a good part.

6) When to Use MSA (Measurement System Analysis):

      ➧ On the critical inputs and outputs prior to collecting data for analysis.
      ➧ For any new or modified process in order to ensure the quality of the data. 

→ Who Should be Involved in MSA (Measurement System Analysis) Study :
      ➧ Operators/inspectors/engineers who measure and makes decisions about these measurements should be involved in the MSA (Measurement System Analysis)

👉 Note: MSA (Measurement System Analysis) is an analysis of the Measurement Process, not an analysis of the people !! It comes before SPC.

7) Types of MSA (Measurement System Analysis) Study:

     (1) Variable GR&R Study
     (2) Attribute GR&R Study

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