Industry 4.0 | Industrial Revolution | Design Principles of Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 | Industrial Revolution | Design Principles of Industry 4.0

1) What is Industry 4.0?

→ Industry 4.0 or the Fourth Industrial Revolution is based on the cyber-physical transformation of machining and manufacturing.
→ The current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies is known as an Industry 4.0.
→ Sometimes it is also known as "I4.0" or "I4"
→ The name Industry 4.0 has arrived from the German government's initiative to promote manufacturing and a digital convergence between industry and computerization of manufacturing.
→ The basic principle of Industry 4.0 is that by connecting machines, workpieces, processes, businesses and many other things are creating intelligent networks along the entire value chain.
→ All these things are control each other autonomously.
→ Example for Industry 4.0 or Smart Factory concept is a machine which can predict the probability of failure and start maintenance processes autonomously before the failure happens.
→ In Industry 4.0 millions of machines, managed by the machines themselves, fortunately using Artificial intelligence developed by humans.

2) What is the Industrial Revolution?

→ The changes in manufacturing and transportation are called as an Industrial Revolution.
Example: Initially a product was made by hand then it was made by machine then it was manufactured on a larger scale by mass production.

Milestones of the Industrial Revolution

3) Four Milestones of the Industrial Revolution

  1. First Industrial Revolution
  2. Second Industrial Revolution
  3. Third Industrial Revolution
  4. Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR)

➤ [1] First Industrial Revolution

→ The First Industrial Revolution - 18th to 19th centuries in Europe and North America.
→ In that period many agrarian and rural societies became industrial and urban.
→ In this Industrial Revolution, the iron ore and textile industries were developed.
→ And mechanization made possible by steam power and water power.

➤ [2] Second Industrial Revolution

→ The Second Industrial Revolution - 1870 and 1914, just before World War I.
→ In this period pre-existing industries were developed rapidly.
→ New businesses, such as steel, oil, and electricity, and used electric power to create mass production were also developed very speedily.
→ Many technical things also developed during this period such as the telephone, light bulb, phonograph, and the internal combustion engine.

➤ [3] Third Industrial Revolution

→ The Third Industrial Revolution - Digital Revolution
→ This revolution refers to the technology from analog electronic devices and mechanical devices to digital technology.
→ The Third Industrial Revolution has started in the 1980s and still is continuing.
→ This includes the personal computer, the internet, information, and communications technology, and automated machines and production processes.
→ It has the potential to grow in the field of,
1) Automated driving,
2) 5G networks and the internet of things and
3) Renewable energy.

➤ [4] Fourth Industrial Revolution

→ The biggest impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is to improve the quality of life.
→ This fourth revolution is fundamentally different from the previous three
→ Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) by emerging technology breakthroughs in a number of fields like,
  • Robotics,
  • Artificial intelligence,
  • Nanotechnology,
  • Quantum computing,
  • Biotechnology,
  • The Internet of Things (IoT),
  • The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT),
  • Decentralized consensus,
  • Fifth-generation wireless technologies (5G),
  • Additive manufacturing/3D printing and
  • Fully autonomous vehicles.
→ These technologies will connect billions of more people with the 4th Industrial Revolution.
→ It will improve the efficiency of business and organizations.
→ The 4th Industrial Revolution will help to regenerate the natural environment through better asset management.

4) Design Principles of Industry 4.0

→ Four Design principles of industry 4.0
  1. Interconnection
  2. Information Transparency
  3. Technical Assistance
  4. Decentralized decisions

[1] Interconnection

→ Interconnection is the ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and with the help of the Internet of Things, they communicate with each other.
→ It allows us to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of our process with the help of wireless communication technology and capabilities of the Internet of things (IoT)

[2] Information transparency

→ Industry 4.0 provides large amounts of useful information to make appropriate decisions from all points in the manufacturing process.
→ Inter-connectivity allows operators to collect large amounts of data and information from the manufacturing process.
→ This large amount of data will be sued for analysis, innovation, and improvement.

[3] Technical assistance

→ Industry 4.0 Provides technical assistance
→ In technical assistance, the role of humans as an operator of machines is shited to a problem solver and decision maker in the Industry 4.0 concept.
→ Technical assistance helps to solve urgent problems on short notice.
→ It supports to conduct tasks that are unpleasant and unsafe for the human worker.

[4] Decentralized decisions

→ The decentralized decision allows an operator to make a decision from inside the production plant facilities as well outside of the factory.
→ It is possible due to Interconnection and information transparency provided by decentralized decision.
→ Decentralized decisions combine local and global information at the same time.
→ It supports better decision-making and increases overall productivity.

5) Technologies in Industry 4.0 or Foundation of Industry 4.0

Technologies in Industry 4.0

→ The Nine Pillars of Industry 4.0
  1. Autonomous Robots
  2. Simulation
  3. Horizontal and Vertical System Integration
  4. The Industrial Internet of Things
  5. Cyber Security
  6. The Cloud Data Computing and Storage
  7. Additive Manufacturing
  8. Augmented Reality
  9. Big Data Analytics

[1] Autonomous Robots

 Many industries have robots to complete complex assignments.
 They are becoming more autonomous, cooperative and flexible.
 Robots work safely in hazardous condition also.
 The robots will have great capabilities.
 Very interactive collaboration with a human is possible by high-end sensors and control units.
 Nowadays robots can automatically adjust their actions.

[2] Simulation

 Nowadays 3-D simulations of production processes, products, and materials in production processes are already used.
 But in the future, simulations will be used on a large scale in manufacturing.
 These simulations will allow operators to test and optimize the machine settings for the next product in the virtual world before the physical changeover.
 Therefore, machine setup time will be reduced by 80 percent and increases product quality.

[3] Horizontal and Vertical System Integration

 Companies, suppliers, and customers are rarely closely linked.
 Any departments such as engineering, production, and service are not integrated.
 Top management and bottom management are not fully integrated.
 But in Industry 4.0, companies, departments, functions, and capabilities will become universal data-integration networks and enable truly automated value chains.

[4] The Industrial Internet of Things [IIoT]

 Today, only some sensors and machines are networked and enable embedded computing.
 But with the Industrial Internet of Things, more devices will be enriched with embedded computing.
 They will be connected using standard technologies.
 Industrial Internet of Things allows field devices to communicate and interact with one another devices and also with more centralized controllers.

[5] Cyber Security

→ Industry 4.0 provides increased connectivity and use of standard communications protocols.
→ Cyber Security protects critical industrial systems and manufacturing lines from threats.

[6] The Cloud Data Computing and Storage

→ Companies are already using cloud-based software for analytics applications.
→ But with Industry 4.0, more production-related activities will require increased data sharing across sites and company boundaries.
→ The performance of cloud technologies is very high.
→ The responding time of cloud data is in milliseconds.
→ It will enable more data-driven services for production systems.

[7] Additive Manufacturing

→ Companies have just begun to adopt additive manufacturing, such as 3-D printing.
→ 3-D printing uses mostly to prototype and produces individual components.
→ In Industry 4.0, Additive-manufacturing process will be used to produce small batches of customized products.
→ Additive manufacturing offers construction advantages, such as complex, lightweight designs.
→ This system will reduce transport distances.

→ Example - Many companies are already using additive manufacturing to reduce product weight and reducing their expenses for raw materials.

[8] Augmented Reality

→ Augmented-reality-based systems such as selecting parts in a warehouse and sending repair instructions over mobile devices.
→ These systems are currently in their early stage.
→ But in the future, Augmented Reality will provide real-time information to improve decision making and work procedures.

→ Example - Augmented Reality will use to provide virtual training.
 In this virtual world, operators can learn to interact with machines by clicking on a cyber-representation.

[9] Big Data Analytics

→ By data analytics, we can optimize production quality, saves energy, and improves equipment service.
→ In an Industry 4.0, the collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources will become standard to support real-time decision making.

6) Challenges in implementation of Industry 4.0

  • IT security issues
  • Reliability and stability needed
  • Insufficient qualification of employees
  • Need to maintain the integrity of production processes
  • Lack of adequate skill-sets
  • General unwillingness to change
  • Loss of many jobs
  • Unclear legal issues and data security
  • Excessive investment
  • Lack of regulation, standard and forms of certifications
  • Role of big data and analytics in Industry 4.0
→ Modern information and communication technologies like a cyber-physical system, big data analytics, and cloud computing will help to detect the failure mode before production failures.
→ After detecting the failure mode it enables their prevention.
→ It improves Quality and Productivity.

➤ The 6C system in Big Data Analytics:

  1. Connection (sensor and networks)
  2. Cloud (computing and data on demand)
  3. Cyber (model & memory)
  4. Content/context (meaning and correlation)
  5. Community (sharing & collaboration)
  6. Customization (personalization and value)
→ There are two types of issues are available in the factory, visible issues, and invisible issues.
→ Industry 4.0 is capable to handle these both issue with the help of an algorithm.
→ This algorithm detects and addresses invisible issues.
→ The examples of invisible issues are wear of any components of the machine and machine degradation.

7) Impact of Industry 4.0

→ Industry 4.0 will affect many areas such as,
  • Product lifecycle
  • Workers' education and skills
  • Services and business models
  • IT security
  • Continuous Productivity
  • Machine safety
  • Manufacturing Sales
  • Reliability
  • Industry value chain

8) Benefits of Industry 4.0

  • Reducing maintenance costs
  • Reducing machine downtime and machine failure
  • Ensuring quality
  • Improving safety
  • Improve equipment’s performance
  • Increasing production efficiency
  • Promoting proactive
  • Improving the communication flow
  • Enhancing supply chain
  • Improving man and machine collaboration
  • Make longer equipment life cycle