Industry 40 The Industrial Revolution

What is Industry 4.0?

→ Industry 4.0 or the Fourth Industrial Revolution is based on the cyber-physical transformation of machining and manufacturing.
→ The current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies is known as Industry 4.0.
→ Sometimes it is also known as "I4.0" or "I4"
→ This name has arrived from the German government's initiative to promote manufacturing and a digital convergence between industries and computerization of manufacturing.
→ The basic principle is that by connecting machines, workpieces, processes, businesses and many other things are creating intelligent networks along the entire value chain.
→ All these things are control each other autonomously.
→ An example of the Smart Factory concept is a machine that can predict the probability of failure and start maintenance processes autonomously before the failure happens.
→ In a smart factory, millions of machines, managed by the machines themselves, fortunately using Artificial intelligence developed by humans.

What is the Industrial Revolution?

→ The changes in manufacturing and transportation with the help of new technologies are called the Industrial Revolution.
→ Example: Initially a product was made by hand then it was made by machine then it was manufactured on a larger scale by mass production.



Four Milestones of the Industrial Revolution

→ The four milestones are explained below.

Milestone of the Industrial Revolution

[1] First Industrial Revolution

→ It has happened in the 18th to 19th centuries in Europe and North America.
→ In that period many agrarian and rural societies became industrial and urban.
→ In this duration, the iron ore and textile industries were developed.
→ And mechanization made possible by steam power and water power.

[2] Second Industrial Revolution

→ The Second Revolution - 1870 and 1914, just before World War I.
→ In this period pre-existing industries were developed rapidly.
→ New businesses, such as steel, oil, and electricity, and used electric power to create mass production were also developed very speedily.
→ Many technical things also developed during this period such as the telephone, light bulb, phonograph, and the internal combustion engine.

[3] Third Industrial Revolution

→ It is also called Digital Revolution and it was started in the 1980s and still is continuing.
→ This revolution refers to the technology from analog electronic devices and mechanical devices to digital technology.
→ This includes the personal computer, the internet, information, and communications technology, and automated machines and production processes.
➨ It has the potential to grow in the field of,
     ⇢ Automated driving,
     ⇢ 5G networks and the internet of things and
     ⇢ Renewable energy.



[4] Fourth Industrial Revolution

→ The biggest impact of  Fourth Revolution is to improve the quality of life.
→ This is fundamentally different from the previous three
➨ Breakthroughs by this revolution (4IR) in below fields,
     ⇢ Robotics,
     ⇢ Artificial intelligence,
     ⇢ Nanotechnology,
     ⇢ Quantum computing,
     ⇢ Biotechnology,
     ⇢ The Internet of Things (IoT),
     ⇢ The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT),
     ⇢ Decentralized consensus,
     ⇢ Fifth-generation wireless technologies (5G),
     ⇢ Additive manufacturing/3D printing and
     ⇢ Fully autonomous vehicles.
→ These technologies will connect billions of more people.
→ It will improve the efficiency of businesses and organizations.
→ This revolution will help to regenerate the natural environment through better asset management.



Four Design Principles of Industry 4.0

  1. Interconnection
  2. Information Transparency
  3. Technical Assistance
  4. Decentralized decisions

[1] Interconnection

→ Interconnection is the ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and with the help of the Internet of Things, they communicate with each other.
→ It allows us to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of our process with the help of wireless communication technology and capabilities of the Internet of things (IoT)

[2] Information transparency

→ The information transparency provides large amounts of useful information to make appropriate decisions from all points in the operation process.
→ Inter-connectivity allows operators to collect large amounts of data and information from the operation process.
→ This large amount of information will be used for analysis, innovation, and improvement.

[3] Technical assistance

→ Technical assistance is the key principle for this revolution.
→ In technical assistance, the role of humans as an operator of machines is shited to a problem solver and decision-maker in this concept.
→ Technical assistance helps to solve urgent problems on short notice.
→ It supports to conduct tasks that are unpleasant and unsafe for the human worker.

[4] Decentralized decisions

→ The decentralized decision allows an operator to make a decision from inside the production plant facilities as well outside of the factory.
→ It is possible due to Interconnection and information transparency provided by decentralized decision.
→ Decentralized decisions combine local and global information at the same time.
→ It supports better decision-making and increases overall productivity.



Technologies in Industry 4.0

➨ There are various different technologies are used is such as, Autonomous Robots, Simulation, Horizontal and Vertical System Integration, The Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Security, Cloud Data Computing and Storage, Additive Manufacturing, Augmented Reality, Big Data Analytics.

The Nine Pillars of Industry 4.0

  1. Autonomous Robots
  2. Simulation
  3. Horizontal and Vertical System Integration
  4. The Industrial Internet of Things
  5. Cyber Security
  6. The Cloud Data Computing and Storage
  7. Additive Manufacturing
  8. Augmented Reality
  9. Big Data Analytics

Technologies in Industry 40

[1] Autonomous Robots

→ Many industries have robots to complete complex assignments.
→ They are becoming more autonomous, cooperative and flexible.
→ Robots work safely in a hazardous condition also.
→ The robots will have great capabilities.
→ Very interactive collaboration with a human is possible by high-end sensors and control units.
→ Nowadays robots can automatically adjust their actions.

[2] Simulation

→ Nowadays 3-D simulations of production processes, products, and materials in production processes are already used.
→ But in the future, simulations will be used on a large scale in manufacturing.
→ These simulations will allow operators to test and optimize the machine settings for the next product in the virtual world before the physical changeover.
→ Therefore, machine setup time will be reduced by 80 percent and increases Product Quality.

[3] Horizontal and Vertical System Integration

→ Companies, suppliers, and customers are rarely closely linked.
→ Any departments such as engineering, production, and service are not integrated.
→ Top management and bottom management are not fully integrated.
→ In this technology, companies, departments, functions, and capabilities will become universal data-integration networks and enable truly automated value chains.

[4] The Industrial Internet of Things [IIoT]

→ Today, only some sensors and machines are networked and enable embedded computing.
→ But with the IIoTs, more devices will be enriched with embedded computing.
→ They will be connected using standard technologies.
→ Industrial Internet of Things allows field devices to communicate and interact with one another devices and also with more centralized controllers.



[5] Cyber Security

→ Industry 4.0 provides increased connectivity and the use of standard communications protocols.
→ Cyber Security protects critical industrial systems and manufacturing lines from threats.

[6] The Cloud Data Computing and Storage

→ Companies are already using cloud-based software for analytics applications.
→ But with Industry 4.0, more production-related activities will require increased data sharing across sites and company boundaries.
→ The performance of cloud technologies is very high and the responding time is in milliseconds.
→ It will enable more services for production systems.

[7] Additive Manufacturing

→ Companies have just begun to adopt additive manufacturing, such as 3-D printing.
→ 3-D printing uses mostly to prototype and produces individual components.
→ The additive-manufacturing process will be used to produce small batches of customized products.
→ Additive manufacturing offers construction advantages, such as complex, lightweight designs.
→ This system will reduce transport distances.
➨ Example - Many companies are already using additive manufacturing to reduce product weight and reducing their expenses for raw materials.

[8] Augmented Reality

→ Augmented-reality-based systems such as selecting parts in a warehouse and sending repair instructions over mobile devices.
→ These systems are currently in their early stages.
→ But in the future, Augmented Reality will provide real-time information to improve decision making and work procedures.
➨ Example - Augmented Reality will use to provide virtual training.
→ In this virtual world, operators can learn to interact with machines by clicking on a cyber-representation.

[9] Big Data Analytics

→ By data analytics, we can optimize production quality, saves energy, and improves equipment service.
→ In an Industry 4.0, the collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources will become standard to support real-time decision making.
➨ The 6C system in Big Data Analytics:
     ⇢ Connection (sensor and networks)
     ⇢ Cloud (computing and data on demand)
     ⇢ Cyber (model & memory)
     ⇢ Content/context (meaning and correlation)
     ⇢ Community (sharing & collaboration)
     ⇢ Customization (personalization and value)

➨ There are two types of issues are available in the factory, visible issues, and invisible issues.
→ Industry 4.0 is capable to handle these issues with the help of an algorithm.
→ This algorithm detects and addresses invisible issues.
→ The examples of invisible issues are the wear of any components of the machine and machine degradation.



Challenges in implementation of Industry 4.0

→ IT security issues
→ Reliability and stability needed
→ Insufficient qualification of employees
→ Need to maintain the integrity of production processes
→ Lack of adequate skill-sets
→ General unwillingness to change
→ Loss of many jobs
→ Unclear legal issues and data security
→ Excessive investment
→ Lack of regulation, standard and forms of certifications
→ Role of big data and analytics in Industry 4.0
➨ Modern information and communication technologies like a cyber-physical system, big data analytics, and cloud computing will help to detect the failure mode before production failures.
➨ After detecting the failure mode it enables their prevention.
➨ It improves Quality and Productivity.

Impact of Industry 4.0

→ Industry 4.0 will affect many areas such as,
     ⇢ Product lifecycle
     ⇢ Workers' education and skills
     ⇢ Services and business models
     ⇢ IT security
     ⇢ Continuous Productivity
     ⇢ Machine safety
     ⇢ Manufacturing Sales
     ⇢ Reliability
     ⇢ Industry value chain



Benefits of Industry 4.0

→ Reducing maintenance costs
→ Reducing machine downtime and machine failure
→ Ensuring quality
→ Improving safety
Improve equipment’s performance
→ Increasing production efficiency
→ Promoting proactive
→ Improving the communication flow
→ Enhancing supply chain
→ Improving man and machine collaboration
→ Make longer equipment life cycle

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