8D | Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving | 8D Problem Solving Method

8D | Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving | 8D Problem Solving Method | 8D Methodology

What is 8D Problem Solving Method?

→ 8D Problem Solving Method is a systematic problem-solving methodology.
 It was introduced by “Ford Motor Company” in the Automotive industry.
 These are 8 Disciplines or 8 Steps or 8 Do’s which must be followed for identifying and eliminating a problem in a Product, Process or Service.




The 8D's (Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving Method):

  1. Establish the Team
  2. Describe the Problem
  3. Develop Interim Containment Actions
  4. Define and Verify Root Cause & Escape Points
  5. Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions
  6. Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions
  7. System Prevention Actions to Prevent Recurrence
  8. Recognize Team Contributions
8D's (Eight Disciplines)

👉 Download: Excel Template of 8D Report Format


➤ D1: Establish the Team - 8D Problem Solving Method:

➥ Purpose of D1:

→ Establish a small group of people with the Product, Process or Service knowledge.

➥ Key Activity of the Team in D1

→ Review priorities, scope, and problem
 Identify how big team is needed 
 Identify team members and establish the team
 Nominate a team leader, project champion and facilitator 
 Assign the roles and responsibilities 



➤ D2: Describe the Problem - 8D Methodology:

➥ Purpose of D2:

 Describe the internal or external problem by identifying “what is wrong with what” and detailing the problem in quantifiable terms so that we can solve the problem.


➥ Key Activity of D2:

→ Develop a Problem Statement which represents the problem.
Develop a flowchart of the process and identify critical process steps with respect to the Problem.
→ Establish a high-level project plan, including milestones, project goals, and objectives.
→ The Problem Description defines the boundaries of a problem.

➦ We can use the below tools to Describe the Problem.
→ 5W2H method for Define the Problem
 Why-Why Analysis
Check Sheet

➤ D3: Develop Interim Containment Actions in the 8D Problem Solving Method:

➥ Purpose of D3:

 Define, verify and implement Interim Containment Action to isolate the effects of the problem from any internal and/or external Customer until Permanent Corrective (Preventive) Action(s) are implemented.

➥ Key Activity of D3 in the 8D Problem Solving Method:

 Define the Interim Containment Action
 Verify the effectiveness of the Interim Containment Action
 Select and implement Interim Containment Action
 Validate the effectiveness of implemented Interim Containment Action with the customer

➥ The Containment Actions must be implemented at the below location:

 Customer's finished good (FG) storage
 At the Customer's line (In process storage)
 Customer's RM storage
 Supplier's FG storage
 At the Supplier's line (In process storage)
 Supplier's RM storage
  Also, check at sub supplier's FG, In Process an RM storage (if applicable)

➦ We can use below tools for Develop Interim Containment Actions in the 8D Method:
 Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
 Process Flow Diagram




➤ D4: Define and Verify Root Cause & Escape Points:


➦ Purpose of D4:

→ In this stage, the root cause is identified to take permanent action to eliminate the problem.

➦ Key Activity of D4:

 Development of Root Cause
 Verification of the Root Cause through data collection
 Review Process Flow Diagram for the location of the root cause
 Determine Escape Point
 The Escape Point is the closest point in the process where the root cause could have been found but was not.

➦ We can use below tools for Define & Verify Root Cause & Escape Points

 Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone Diagram
 Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
 Scatter Diagram
 Process Flow Diagram


➤ D5: Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions in the 8D Problem Solving Method:


➦ Purpose of D5:

→ Select the best Permanent Corrective Actions to eliminate the root cause in the process.


➦ Key Activity of D5:

 Develop solution(s) to remove the root cause(s) & escape point(s)
 Select the best solution(s) to remove the root cause(s) & escape point(s)
 Verify that effectiveness of the selected solutions


➦ Six Mistake-Proofing Principles:

  1. Elimination
  2. Prevention
  3. Replacement
  4. Facilitation
  5. Detection
  6. Mitigation
Six Mistake-Proofing Principles

➦ Various Mistake-Proofing Methods:

  1. Variation Control
  2. Workplace Organization
  3. Identification
  4. Process Checks
  5. Poka-Yoke Devices

➦ Various Mistake-Proofing Devices:

  1. Guide Pins
  2. Error Detection & Alarms
  3. Limit Switches
  4. Sensors
  5. Vision Systems
  6. Counters & Timers
  7. Checklists

Various Mistake-Proofing Devices

➦ We can use below tools for Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions:

 Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone Diagram
 Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
 Scatter Diagram
 Process Flow Diagram

 PFMEA (Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
 Control Plan

➤ D6: Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions - 8D Problem Solving:

➦ Purpose of D6:

 Plan and implement selected Permanent Corrective Actions

➦ Key Activity of D6 in the 8D Problem Solving Method:

 Implement the best solution(s) to remove the root cause(s) & escape point(s)
 Validate the effectiveness of the implemented Action(s).
 Monitor the effectiveness of the implemented solutions and assure that they do not cause any undesirable effects.
 Communicate the plan to all relevant interested parties.

➦ We can use below tools for Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions:

 Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone Diagram
 Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
 Scatter Diagram
 Process Flow Diagram


➤ D7: System Prevention Action to Prevent Recurrence - 8D Problem Solving Method:

➦  Purpose of D7:

 The purpose of the Prevent Recurrence is to share the knowledge, preventing problems on similar products, processes, locations or families.

➦  Key Activity of D7 in the 8D Problem Solving Method:

→ Review Similar Products and Processes for problem prevention (Horizontal Deployment)
→ To Update Procedures and Work Instructions
→ Assure PFD, PFMEA and Control Plan have been updated
→ Check the needing standardization have been identified and implemented?

➦ We can use below tools/documents to Prevent Recurrence:

 Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone Diagram
 Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
 Scatter Diagram
 PFD (Process Flow Diagram)

 PFMEA (Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
 Control Plan
 Work Instruction/SOP and Procedure



➤ D8: Recognize Team Contributions - the 8D Problem Solving Method:

➦ Purpose of D8:

→  Identify the lesson(s) learned and celebrate the success of the team.

➦ Key Activity of D8 in the 8D Problem Solving Method:

→ Perform a final review of the problem-solving project 
→ Capture the Record of 8D Report for future reference
→ Document the Lesson(s) Learned
Before and After Comparison of issue
→ Recognize the team’s success and individual contributions 

➦ We can use below reports for the final stage in the 8D Problem Solving Method:

 8D Report
 Lesson Learned Report
→ Before and After Comparison of issue