## What is 8D Methodology?

→ 8D Methodology is a systematic problem-solving method.
→ It was made popular by “The Ford Motor Company” in the automotive industry.
→ These are 8 disciplines or 8 steps that must be followed for identifying and eliminating a problem in a product, process, or service.

## Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving:

1. Establish the team
2. Describe the problem
3. Develop interim containment actions
4. Define and verify root cause & escape points
5. Choose and verify permanent corrective actions
6. Implement and validate permanent corrective actions
7. System prevention actions to prevent a recurrence
8. Recognize team contributions

## 8D Problem Solving Example:

#### D1: Establish the Team:

➨ Purpose of D1:
→ Establish a small group of people with relevant knowledge.
➨ Key activities of the team in D1:
→ Review priorities, scope, and problem
→ Identify how big a team is needed
→ Identify team members and establish the team
→ Nominate a team leader, project champion, and facilitator
→ Assign the roles and responsibilities

#### D2: Describe the Problem:

➨ Purpose of D2:
→ Describe the internal or external issue by identifying “what is wrong with what” and detailing the problem in quantifiable terms so it is easy to take further action.
➨ Key activities in D2:
→ Develop a problem statement and a flowchart of all operation steps and identify critical operation steps with respect to the problem.
→ Establish a high-level project plan, including milestones, project goals, and objectives.
→ The description should define the boundaries.
➨ We can use the below tools to describe the problem.
→ 5W2H method
→ Why-Why Analysis
Check Sheet

#### D3: Develop Interim Containment Actions

➨ Purpose of D3:
→ Define, verify, and implement interim containment action to isolate the effects of the problem from any internal and/or external customer until permanent corrective (preventive) actions are implemented.
➨ Key activities in D3:
→ Define the interim containment action
→ Verify the effectiveness of the interim containment action
→ Select and implement interim containment action
→ Validate the effectiveness of implemented interim containment action with the customer
➨ The containment actions must be implemented at the below location:
→ Customer's finished goods (FG) storage
→ At the customer's line
→ Customer's RM storage
→ Supplier's FG storage
→ At the Supplier's line
→ Supplier's RM storage
→  Also, check sub supplier's sequence of operation
➨ We can use the below tools for developing interim containment actions:
→ Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
Process Flow Diagram

#### D4: Define and Verify Root Cause & Escape Points:

➨ Purpose of D4:
→ In this stage, the root cause is identified to take permanent action to eliminate the problem.
➨ Key activities in D4:
→ Development and verification of root_cause through data collection
→ Review process flow for the location of the root_cause
→ Determine the escape point
→ The escape point is the closest point in the process where the root cause could have been found but was not.
➨ We can use the below tools to define & verify root_cause & escape points
→ Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram
→ Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
Scatter Diagram
→ Process Flow Chart

#### D5: Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions

➨ Purpose of D5:
→ Select the best permanent corrective actions to eliminate the root cause in the process.
➨ Key activities in D5:
→ Develop and select the solution to remove the root cause & escape point
→ Verify the effectiveness of the selected solutions
➨ Six Mistake-Proofing Principles:
1. Elimination
2. Prevention
3. Replacement
4. Facilitation
5. Detection
6. Mitigation

➨ Various Mistake-Proofing Methods:
⇢ Variation Control
⇢ Workplace Organization
⇢ Identification
⇢ Process Checks
⇢ Poka-Yoke Devices

➨ Various Mistake-Proofing Devices:
⇢ Guide Pins
⇢ Error Detection & Alarms
⇢ Limit Switches
⇢ Sensors
⇢ Vision Systems
⇢ Counters & Timers
⇢ Checklists

➨ We can use the below tools for Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions:
→ Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram
→ Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
→ Scatter Diagram
→ Process Flow Chart
→ PFMEA (Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
→ Control Plan

#### D6: Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions

➨ Purpose of D6:
→ Plan and implement selected Permanent Corrective Actions
➨ Key activities in D6:
→ Implement the best solution to remove the root cause & escape point
→ Validate the effectiveness of the implemented action.
→ Monitor the effectiveness of the implemented solutions and assure that they do not cause any undesirable effects.
→ Communicate the plan to all relevant interested parties.
➨ We can use the below tools for implement and validate permanent corrective actions:
Cause and Effect Diagram or Fishbone
→ Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
→ Scatter Diagram
→ Process Flow Diagram

#### D7: System Prevention Action to Prevent Recurrence

➨ Purpose of D7:
→ The purpose of the prevent recurrence is to share the knowledge, preventing_problems on similar products, processes, locations, or families.
➨ Key activities in D7:
→ Review similar products and processes for problem_prevention (Horizontal Deployment)
→ To update procedures and work instructions
→ Assure PFD, PFMEA, and Control Plan have been updated
→ Check the needing standardization has been identified and implemented?
➨ We can use below tools/documents to prevent recurrence:
→ Cause & Effect Diagram or Fishbone
→ Why-Why Analysis
→ Check Sheet
→ Scatter Diagram
→ PFD (Process Flow Diagram)
→ PFMEA (Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
→ Control Plan
→ Work Instruction/SOP and Procedure

#### D8: Recognize Team Contributions

➨ Purpose of D8:
→  Identify the lesson(s) learned and celebrate the success of the team.
➨ Key activities in D8:
→ Perform a final review of the problem-solving project
→ Prepare the report for future reference
→ Document the lesson learned
→ Before and after comparison of the issue
→ Recognize the team’s success and individual contributions
➨ We can use the below reports for the final stage in the 8D Methodology
→ 8D Report
→ Lesson Learned Report
→ Before and After Comparison of the issue

### 14 تعليقات

1. Very detailed explanation on 8D. Thanks

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7. Useful

1. Thanks and happy learning