Six Sigma  DMAIC Methodology  Types of Belts in Six Sigma

Six Sigma | DMAIC Methodology | Types of Belts in Six Sigma

1) What is Six Sigma?

 Sigma (𝝈) is the Greek letter representing a statistical unit of measurement that defines the standard deviation (SD) of a population.
 Six refers to the number of SD’s from the specialized limit to the mean.
 It measures the variability or spread of the data.
→ Six Sigma is a highly structured strategy.
→ It is a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining and maximizing business success.
 It is more about the culture than the tools.
 Six Sigma is about all the people who adopted Quality in everything they do.
 In Six Sigma the people driving improvements based on facts and data.
 It is an initiative that extends and strengthens quality and productivity efforts.
 It is a detailed roadmap to process improvement.

2) Benefits of Six Sigma Implementation:

 Six Sigma Project improve the capability of their business processes.
 It increases the performance and decrease in process variation.
 Decrease the defect generation.
 Improve profit of the organization.
 This project Improves employee morale and motivation.
 It improves in quality of products and customer satisfaction.

3) Different approaches of Six Sigma:

→ Six Sigma can be understood in three different approach:

→ [Approach 1]: Methodology Approach
→ DMAIC Methodology used for the Six Sigma Project.
→ DMAIC is a structured problem-solving roadmap and tools.

→ [Approach 2]: Philosophy Approach
→ Reduce variation in your process and take customer-focused, data-driven decisions. 

→ [Approach 3]: Metric Approach
→ 3.4 Defects Per Million Opportunities.
→ DPMO allows you to take the complexity of product/process into account.
→ Rule of thumb is to consider at least three opportunities for a physical part/component – one for form, one for fit and one for function, in absence of better considerations.

4) History of Six Sigma:

 Motorola has developed the concept of Six Sigma in 1987.
 It is basically a bunch of various quality tools. 
 One of the most important tools of this methodology is the Control Chart.
 Control Charts were developed way back in 1924 by quality guru Walter A. Shewhart.
 Bill Smith of Motorola is considered to be the father of Six Sigma.
 Six Sigma helped Motorola to be the first company to receive the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award in the year 1988.
 Looking at the success of Six Sigma at Motorola number of other companies, such as General Electric, Dow Chemical, DuPont, Honeywell, Whirlpool adopted this methodology.
 These are some of the early adopters.
 By adopting this methodology, many companies have improved their processes, reduce their defects level, and to make their customers satisfied.
 Jack Welch of General Electric has made Six Sigma more popular around the world.
 In General Electric, employee promotions were depending on whether the employee had a specific Six Sigma belt or not.

5) Milestones of Six Sigma:

 1986 Six Sigma formulated by Bill Smith in Motorola.
 1988 Motorola becomes the first company to win the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award.
 1993 Allied Signal adopted in this methodology.
 1995 General Electric (GE) launched the Six Sigma initiative.
 1998 Honeywell adopted this methodology.

6) The Goal of a Six Sigma Methodology:

 Reduce the variation in Process
→ Maintain the process at the specified mean
→ Improve processes 
 Eliminating the defects and wastes
 Increase customer satisfaction
 Increase the Profit 

7) Types of Belts in Six Sigma:

 There are different belts in Six Sigma project structure.
  1. Yellow belt
  2. Green belt
  3. Black Belt and 
  4. Master Black Belt.
Types of Belts in Six Sigma

➤ [1] Yellow Belt - Types of Belts in Six Sigma:

     → A Yellow Belt certified person has a basic understanding of Six Sigma.
     → Yellow Belt certified person doesn’t lead projects by themselves.
     → These professionals are responsible to support the project team in creating process maps.
     → They may act as subject experts or take part as a core team member in projects.
     → They can also carry out small projects with the guidance of Greenbelts or Black belts.
     → Yellow belt holder may actively participate in process improvement projects like Kaizen or PDCA.

➤ [2] Green Belt - Types of Belts in Six Sigma:

     → A Green Belt certified person has a good understanding of all aspects of the phases of DMAIC.
     → Green Belt holder works under the guidance and supervision of the Black Belts.
     → They analyze and solve the quality related issues and participate in quality improvement projects.
     → Green Belt holder usually work on projects within their own functional area.
     → They should schedule regular meetings with their mentor or coach to review the progress of an ongoing project.
     → Green Belts are employees of an organization who have been trained on the Six Sigma improvement methods.
     → Green Belt holders lead small projects in their work area and assist Black Belts in finding process gaps.

  [3] Black Belt - Types of Belts in Six Sigma:

     → After successfully completing the Green Belt Certification, professionals can go for Black Belt certification,
     → Black Belt holder Leads problem-solving projects.
     → The Black Belt holder trains and coaches project team members.
     → In Black Belt-level course, professionals give an explanation about what they have learned and gain hands-on experience by conducting a project for their organization.
     → They need to increase customer satisfaction and make their businesses more productive.
     → Black Belt holder goes to execute Six Sigma projects, monitor results and manage a team.
     → As compare to Green Belt holder, a Black Belt holder has a high level of understanding of Six Sigma principles, systems, tools & techniques.

➤ [4] Master Black Belt - Types of Belts in Six Sigma:

     → A Black Belt holder with strong leadership and problem-solving skills can go to become a Master Black Belt.
     → Master Black Belt trains and coaches Black Belts and Green Belts.
     → The Master Black Belt holders are responsible for translating the high-level business goals into a Six Sigma strategy.
     → They also take responsibility for the development of the Six Sigma skills in the organization, for Black Belts, Green Belts, and the other employees.
     → The Master Black Belt holders have the ultimate responsibility to ensure the quality, value, and sustainability of projects under their guidance.

8) Six Sigma Project Members:

→ Following are the key members in a six sigma project:

  1. Executive Sponsor
  2. Project Champion
  3. Process Owner
  4. Master Black Belt Holder
  5. Black Belt Holder
  6. Green Belt Holder
  7. Yellow Belt Holder

 [1] Executive Sponsor or Leader:

     → Executive Sponsor or Leader includes the CEO and other members of top management.
     → They set a vision for Six Sigma implementation.

➤ [2] Champion:

     → A champion takes responsibility for Six Sigma implementation across the organization in an integrated manner.

➤ [3] Process Owner:

     → Process Owner is an expert in his or her process domain.
     → He or she is responsible for the process.
     → Process owner coordinates Process improvement activities.
     → He or she works with Master black belt or Black belt to improve the processes. 

➤ [4] Master Black Belts:

     → Master Black Belts are identified by champions, act as in-house coaches of the team.
     → They assist champions and guide Black Belts and Green Belts for Six Sigma Projects.

➤ [5] Black Belts:

     → Black Belt holders generally operate under Master Black Belts to apply Six Sigma methodology to specific projects.

➤ [6] Green Belts:

     → Green Belt holder works on an ad-hoc basis in a project.
     → They take responsibility for Six Sigma implementation along with their other job responsibilities.
     → They operate under the guidance of Black Belts in a project.

➤ [7] Yellow Belt:

     → A Yellow Belt holder has a basic understanding of Six Sigma.
     → Yellow Belt holder person doesn’t lead projects by themselves.
     → They are responsible to support the team in creating process maps.

9) What is DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma?

 DMAIC is a data-driven approach for improvement.
 DMAIC Methodology is used for improving, optimizing and stabilizing business processes and designs.
 The DMAIC Methodology is the core tool used for Six Sigma projects.
 Also, DMAIC can be used as a framework for other improvement projects.

➤ DMAIC stands for the five improvement phases:

  1. Define, 
  2. Measure, 
  3. Analyze, 
  4. Improve and 
  5. Control
DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma

➤ [1] Define phase in Six Sigma:

 The purpose of the Define phase is to clearly define the business problem or goal and many more thing depending on the project.
 Capture all project related details in the project charter document.

➤ Activities of the Define phase in DMAIC Methodology:

 Develop a problem statement
 Voice of the customer (VOC) and Critical to Quality (CTQs) requirements (both internal and external), goals and benefits expected through completion of the project.
 Define the Project Scope
 Identify Project Resources
 Identify the champion, process owner and team members
 Develop a Project Plan
 Develop a High-Level Process Map

➤ [2] Measure phase in Six Sigma:

 The purpose of the Measure phase in Six Sigma is to create a complete picture of the current process state and establish current baselines.
 Use this baseline for setting the target as an improvement.
 This is a data collection step

➤ Activities of the Measure phase in DMAIC Methodology:

 Develop Detailed Process Maps with including long or incorrect cycle times, bottlenecks or non-value added process steps.
 Also, identify where data has to be collected.
 Develop Data Collection Plan
 Validate the Measurement System the MSA and GRR Study can help for validating the measurement system
 Collect the Data the control chart can help identify any trends or outlying measurements.

➤ [3] Analyze phase in Six Sigma:

 The purpose of the Analyze phase is to identify all possible causes and then find out the root cause or causes.

➤ Activities of the Analyze phase in DMAIC Methodology:

 Analyze the Data
 The data analyzing method is depending on the type of data collected.
 Identify Causal Factors
 Find out a valid root cause or causes by brainstorming.
 Fishbone diagram is also used to find our the root cause.
 Another popular and effective method for root cause determining is 5 Why method and 5 How method.
 In this phase, Scatter diagram is also used for validation activity of two variable.

➤ [4] Improve phase in Six Sigma:

 In Improve phase, the Six Sigma project team should identify, implement and validate corrective actions to resolve any process or product related issues.
 And also improve the performance of the process or product.

➤ Activities of the Analyze phase in DMAIC Methodology:

 Identify Potential Solutions
 By Brainstorming, the team should identify possible improvements that would increase process efficiency and improve product quality.
 Analyze Failure Modes of Proposed Solutions
 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is often completed before the implementation of any changes.
 The FMEA helps the team identify and address potential failure modes that may arise due to the improvements in the process.
 Validate Improvements
 Validation may be tested on prototype builds, data collection, data analysis and/or creation of a future state process map.

➤ [5] Control phase in Six Sigma:

 In the Improve phase, the team checks the sustainability of the changes were made during the project.
 The control phase is the final phase of the DMAIC Methodology.

➤ Activities of the Analyze phase in DMAIC Methodology:

 Update Process Documentation like Standard operating procedures (SOP's), Control plan, Development plans, Process Maps, Work Instructions, Visual Aids, etc.
 Give training to all associate about the changes were made during the project.
 Communicate about the updated roles and responsibility.
 Implement Statistical Process Control (SPC)
 Create a Process Monitoring Plan
 Celebrate the successful completion of the project with the team and top management.

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