Kano Model in Six Sigma PDF  Example & PPT Template

What is Kano Model in Six Sigma?

→ The Kano Model is a Lean Six Sigma tool that helps us prioritization of product features, and we can understand the trend of satisfaction level of our customer.

→ Kano Model is developed by Prof. Noriaki Kano in 1980s. (Ref. Wikipedia).

→ It looks like a graph having four quadrants.

→ Kano model can be understood by three different aspects that is basic needs, performance, and excitement.

→ It is a very important tool for our business growth. It helps us to analyze the customer’s actual requirements and satisfaction level.

→ It is a product development and customer satisfaction tool.

→ This is a very important tool for understanding the Voice of Customer (VOCs) in the Define Phase of the Lean Six Sigma Project.

→ The objective of the Kano Model to gather feedback from customers and deliver the most satisfying product or service.

→ The feedback of customers can be collected with different methods like questionnaires, surveys, interviews, reviews, social media, and review of warranty claims, etc.

Three Categories of Kano Model

→ The three categories of the Kano_Model are listed below

  1. Basic Needs (Basic Requirements/ Must Be Requirements)
  2. Performance
  3. Excitement

Kano Model Example

01. Basic Needs/Requirements:

→ Basic Requirements are the Kano Model’s “Must-Be” Requirements.

→ Must-Be requirement is essential for all customers.

→ If we are not offering must be a requirement to our customer, they will be unhappy with us and leave us.

→ For better understanding, we will take one example,

➨ Example: In the early 2000s, the internet and wi-fi connection in a hotel room is an exciting factor, but now we all know it is a must-be factor or a basic need of all.

→ When these requirements are unfulfilled, the customers are greatly dissatisfied and when fulfilled, the customers are neutral.

→ So the dissatisfaction level drops exponentially.

→ In other words, these requirements are not able to create any additional satisfaction level for the customer. If we do not fulfill this requirement then customers are greatly dissatisfied.

02. Performance:

→ Performance is the most important thing that improves our market share as compared to others.

→ A direct positive correlation exists between customer satisfaction levels and the degree of this performance of the product or service.

→ So the customer’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction change gradually with the performance of the product and service.

→ We can also say the performance feature that as a one-dimensional and desired quality feature.

→ We can easily see the most common example of performance in the automotive and smartphone industry.

→ Day by day the performance of vehicles and smartphones is improved to attract more customers.

➨ Example: Before a decade smartphones don’t have a high-resolution camera but nowadays it’s a very high-resolution camera available in smartphones that is a very basic example for easily understand the performance.

➨ Example: For better understanding, we can take an example of the Apple phone that is very much famous for its performance compared to any other phone.

→ So apple phone is continuously increasing its market share and business.

03. Excitement:

→ These attributes create excitement in consumers.

→ In other words, we can say excitement as “a wow factor”.

→ Over the period of time, the excitement factor is moved to must be requirements.

→ Let us take one example for a better understanding.

➨ Example: Before one decade the front camera of smartphones is an exciting factor also very few peoples were doing video calls but now a day’s front camera is falling under the must-be requirement.

→ The sudden drop of keypad phones, after the invention of touch screen phones.

→ When these requirements are fulfilled, the customers are greatly satisfied and when not fulfilled, the customers are neutral.

→ So the satisfaction level increases exponentially if the customer gets these features in their product or service.

→ In other words, if this requirement is not fulfilled then the customer’s satisfaction level remains neutral.

Kano Model Example

→ In the initial time, Dr. Kano developed 5 categories for classifying the customer’s preferences.

→ But nowadays most people are referred to as three categories of the Kano_Model.

5 Categories of Kano Model

→ The 5 categories of the Kano_Model are listed below

  1. Dissatisfying - Irritating features – This should be avoided
  2. Must-Haves – It is mandatory requirements
  3. Customer needs – It is reasonable expectations
  4. Delighters - Surprise factors for or we can say “wow” factor
  5. Indifferent - features that are not good or bad – It has not any impact on customer

5 Categories of Kano Model

→ The Kano Model is a graphical tool that displays the relationship between the characteristics of the product or service to the level of customer satisfaction.

→ It is used to organize and prioritize activities to design and/or improve.

→ The x-axis indicates the customer's expectation is fulfilled or not?

→ The y-axis indicates the customer is satisfied or not?

→ Also, the various requirements of customers are changing from time to time basis as per the technology evaluation.

→ We can take one example to understand how the customer's requirements are changing.


→ CD/DVD drive in a laptop is a delighter feature at one time, and then it becomes a basic requirement over the period of time.

→ Nowadays, customers expect slim laptops, so laptops' CD/DVD drive becomes an undesired feature.

How to Prepare a Kano Model?

→ We can easily prepare the KANO model with the help of the below easy five steps.

  1. Identification of Characteristics
  2. Conduct Customer Survey
  3. Classification of Response
  4. Analyze the data
  5. Prioritize and Implement 

How to Prepare a Kano Model

Step 01: Identification of Characteristics

→ In the very first step of preparing the KANO model, we need to identify the characteristics of any product or service.

→ This step is very important in any Six Sigma Project.

→ We need to create a list of features that we need to add to the product or service.

→ This requirement might come from customers, management, or the points from the team brainstorming.

Step 02: Conduct Customer Survey

→ After listing out the characteristics or features of the product or service, we need to take the opinion from the customers.

→ For this, we can divide the survey by asking two different types of questions that are (1) Functional Question, and (2) Dysfunctional Question

  1. Functional - How the customer would feel if the product or service had that particular feature?
  2. Dysfunctional - How the customer would feel if the product or service did not have that particular feature?

Step 03: Classification of Response

→ After taking the review from the customer, we need to classify the responses as per the question types either it is functional or dysfunctional.

→ Compare the functional and dysfunctional types to evaluate the type of requirement.

→ The requirements might be different types that are mentioned below.

(1) Must be Requirement

(2) Performance related Requirement

(3) Delighters or Wow factors

Step 04: Analyze the data

→ After classifying the data we need to analyze the data.

→ Refer to this article for understanding about the Different Data Types

→ For this, we can summarize all the responses and identify the highest requirement for each category.

Step 05: Prioritize and Implement 

→ The last step is the prioritization and implementation of the features into the product or service.

→ First, we need to focus on the “must be” requirements.

→ Secondly, we need to focus on the performance-related requirements that will attract more customers to our product or service.

→ After that, we can focus on the delighter features or wow factors based on the budget.

→ Also, ignore all features that will not add any value.

Benefits of the Kano Model

→ It helps organizations for understanding the behavior of customers, If it changes from attractive to must be a requirement.

→ Kano Model helps a product development team understanding the customer’s requirement and behavior.

→ Kano model reduces the product and service development time by eliminating or adding the features as per customer demand.

→ Also, the Kano model predicts the future trend of the product and service such as currently the excitement/attractive features of the product will be the must be a requirement in the future.

→ So, businesses can identify the clarity of the future customer’s requirement with the help of the Kano Model.

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