## 7 QC Tools for Process Improvement

➞ 7 QC tools is a systematic and scientific method for Problem Solving.
➞ It is used to solve 90% of shop floor problems very easily.
→ 7 QC tools are the systematic and scientific approach to the Problem Solving Technique.
→ It improves our workplace.
→ It can be used to solve 90% of workplace problems.

#### From Where did the 7 QC Tools come?

→ Primarily Kaoru Ishikawa introduced the 7 QC Tools.
→ Ishikawa has known for the “Democratizing (Visual Aids/Symbols) Statistics”.
→ Good visual aids make statistical and quality control more comprehensive.
→ Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa was a professor of the engineering college at Tokyo University.

#### Why we use The 7 QC Tools for Process Improvement?

→ The 7 QC tools for Process Improvement is a set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality.
→ It is a fundamental concept to improve the process and product quality.
→ It is used to examine the production sequence, identify the key issues, control fluctuations of product quality, and give solutions to avoid future defects.
→ This facilitates the organization to resolve the basic problems.
→ These 7 QC tools are easy to understand and implement and they do not need complex analytical/ statistical competence, hence it is simple yet powerful.

#### Benefits of the 7 QC Tools:

➝ It encourages the way of problem-solving and improvement.
➝ They are very simple to use but it is very powerful.
➝ It is a scientific approach for problem-solving.
➝ We can get an 80% result by applying 20% of the effort.
➝ Each tool has its own specialty for problem solving and analysis.
➝ It is very easy to understand, communicate and use by the shop floor operator.

## The 7 QC Tools:

1. Flow Charts
2. Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone or Ishikawa)
3. Checksheet
4. Histogram
5. Pareto Chart
6. Scatter Diagram
7. Control Chart

### ➤ [1] Flow Charts:

→“Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation that illustrates the sequence of operation to be performed to get the desired result.”
→ It is a visual representation tool for a process, therefore, we can easily illustrates the Internal and external operational boundaries.

### ➤ [2] Cause and Effect Diagram:

→ “A diagram which represents a meaningful relationship between an effect and its causes is called the Cause & Effect Diagram."
→ It guides concrete action and tracks the potential causes during an investigation of the effort to determine whether the item significantly contributes to the problem or not.

### ➤ [3] Check Sheet:

→ "Check Sheet is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data."
→ The purpose of a checklist is to summarize the data and a tally count of event occurrences.
→ A check sheet counts the number of occurrences of an event, such as defects or non-conformance.
→ Hence the Check Sheet is also called a "tally sheet ".
→ In many cases, a checklist will summarize countable data related to certain types of defects and will provide a rough graphical representation of wherein a part of the process, defects occurred.

### ➤ [4] Histogram:

→ “Histogram is a type of bar chart representing the frequency distribution of the data from a process.”
→ Karl Pearson introduced Histogram and it is a bar graph representing the frequency distribution on its every bar.
→ The histogram is the best Frequency distribution tool.
→ A histogram is a pictorial representation of a set of data.

#### ➥ Types of Histogram:

• Normal Distribution
• Skewed Distribution
• Double-Peaked or Bimodal
• Multipeaked or Multimodal
• Edge Peaked Histogram
• Truncated or Heart cut Histogram

### ➤ [5] Pareto Chart:

→ "Pareto chart is a bar graph arranged in descending order of height from left to right”
→ It is a diagram that shows the order of the largest number of occurrences by item or by classes and the cumulative sum total.
→ It communicates the principle of 80:20.
→ The Pareto Chart also gives us information about Vital few from Trivial many, Hence,  It is "Vital few from Trivial many".
→ It states that 80% of an effect comes from 20% of the causes.

### ➤ [6] Scatter Diagram:

→ “Scatter Diagram is used to study and identify the possible relationship between two variables”.
→ It is the best validation tool.

#### ➥ Different names of the Scatter Diagram:

• Scatter Plot
• Scatter Graph
• Correlation Chart
• Scatter Gram

#### ➥ Different correlation between two variables in the Scatter Plot:

• Strong Positive
• Moderate Positive correlation
• Weak Positive correlation
• Strong Negative correlation
• Moderate Negative correlation
• Weak Negative correlation
• Random Pattern (No correlation)

### ➤ [7] Control Chart:

→ “Control chart is a type of run chart used for studying the process variation over time."
→ It is a plot of a process characteristic, usually through time with statistically determined limits.
→ When used for process monitoring, it helps the user to determine the appropriate type of action to take on the process depending on a degree of variation.
→ Comparing above all tool Control Chart is the best forecasting tool.

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