PPAP Production Part Approval Process

PPAP | Production Part Approval Process

→ PPAP is Production Part Approval Process.
→ PPAP is a very important tool for establishing confidence in product suppliers and their production processes."
→ ISO 9001:2015 and IATF 16949:2016 is used to formally reduce risks prior to product or service release, in a team-oriented manner, using well-established tools and techniques.
→ Initially developed by AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group) in 1993 with input from the Big 3 - Ford, Chrysler, and GM 
→ AIAG’s 4th edition effective June 1, 2006, is the most recent version of PPAP (Production Part Approval Process).
→ PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) has now spread to many different industries beyond automotive.




1) Purpose of PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→  PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) Provide evidence that all customer engineering design record and specification requirements are properly understood by the organization.
→ To demonstrate that the manufacturing process has the potential to produce the product that consistently meets all requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.

2) When is PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) Required?

    1. PPAP is required at the time of new product development
    2. PPAP is required at the time ofEngineering change(s)
    3. Tooling: transfer, replacement, refurbishment, or additional
    4. Correction of discrepancy
    5. PPAP is required at the time of Tooling inactive > one year
    6. Change to optional construction or material
    7. Sub-supplier or material source change
    8. PPAP is required at the time of change in part processing
    9. Parts produced at a new or additional location

3) Benefits of PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) Submission:

→ PPAP Helps to maintain design integrity
 Identifies issues early for resolution
 Reduces warranty charges and prevents the cost of the poor quality
 Assists with managing supplier changes
 PPAP prevents the use of unapproved and nonconforming parts
 Identifies suppliers that need more development
 Improves the overall quality of the product & customer satisfaction

4)  Production Run in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

 PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) data must be submitted from a production run using:
    → Production equipment and tooling
    → The Production employees
    → The Production rate
    → Production process



5) What is Run @ Rate in PPAP:

 The purpose of a Run @ Rate is to verify the supplier’s manufacturing process is capable of producing components.
 Successful  Run @ Rate means it meets Your Company's quality requirements, at quoted tooling capacity, for a specified period of time.
 Verification of the Run @ Rate will be at the Supplier Quality Engineer’s (SQE) discretion.
 The supplier will be notified of the need to perform a Run @ Rate as early in the process as possible.
 And the number of components to be produced during the Run @ Rate should be sufficient to demonstrate process capability and will be predetermined by the Supplier Quality Engineer and the supplier.
 The no. of components to be produced,  it may vary as per customer's specific requirement.
 Factors such as product complexity, shelf life, storage, cost and single shift vs. multiple shift operations will be taken into consideration


6) PPAP Submission Levels:

→ There are five levels of PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) submission which is mentioned in below figure.

(1) Level 1 of PPAP: Production Warrant and Appearance Approval Report (if applicable)
(2) Level 2 of PPAP: Production Warrant, product samples and dimensional results submitted 
(3) Level 3 of PPAP: Production Warrant, product samples & complete supporting data submitted 
(4) Level 4 of PPAP: Production Warrant, and other requirements as defined by the customer
(5) Level 5 of PPAP: Production Warrant, product samples and complete supporting data (review will be at the organization's location).

PPAP Submission Levels

7) Documents as per PPAP's Requirements:

→ There are mainly 18 documents are required in PPAP.
     1. Design Records
     2. Authorized Engineering Change Documents 
     3. Customer Engineering Approval, if required 
     4. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) 
     5. Process Flow Diagram 
     6. Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) 
     7. Control Plan 
     8. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) 
     9. Dimensional Results 
     10. Records of Material / Performance Test Results
     11. Initial Process Studies
     12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
     13. Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
     14. Sample Production Parts
     15. Master Sample
     16. Checking Aids
     17. Customer-Specific Requirements 
     18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)
Documents as per PPAP's Requirements

➤ Note: →  For each level, full APQP is required as per customer's requirement.
               → The PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) level simply indicates which elements you submit, and which you retain at your site.

➤ There are 18 elements or documents of PPAP:


➤ [1] Design Records in PPAP:

→ Design record is a copy of the drawing and  it is required in PPAP
→ If the customer is responsible for designing then this is a copy of the customer's drawing that is sent together with the Purchase Order (PO).
→ If the supplier is responsible for designing this is a released drawing in supplier’s release system.
Design Records in PPAP

➤ [2] Authorized Engineering Change Documents in PPAP:

→  Authorized Engineering Change Documents is a document that shows the detailed description of the change and it is required in PPAP if applicable.
→  Usually, this document is called “Engineering Change Notice(ECN)”, but it may be covered by the customer PO or any other engineering authorization.

➤ [3] Customer Engineering Approval, if required in PPAP:

→ This approval is usually the Engineering trial with production parts performed at the customer plant and  it is required in PPAP if appland it
→ A “temporary deviation” usually is required to send parts to the customer before PPAP.
→ Customer may require other “Engineering Approvals”.



➤ [4] Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) in PPAP:

→ A copy of the Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer.
→ Design maker is responsible for (DFMEA)

➤ [5] Process Flow Diagram in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ A copy of the Process Flow, indicating all steps and sequence in the process, including incoming components to final part dispatched and  it is required in PPAP
Process Flow Diagram in PPAP

👉 Click Here for Process Flow Diagram Excel Template

➤ [6] Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) in PPAP:

→ A copy of the Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer and  it is required in PPAP
→ The PFMEA follows the Process Flow steps, and indicate “what could go wrong” during the process and assembly of each component till product dispatched.
Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) in PPAP

👉 Click Here for PFMEA Excel Template

➤ [7] Control Plan in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→  A copy of the Control Plan reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer and  it is required in PPAP.
→  The Control Plan follows the PFMEA steps and provides more details on how the “potential issues” are checked in the incoming quality, assembly process or during inspections of finished products till dispatched final product.

Control Plan in PPAP

👉 Click Here for Control Plan Excel Template

➤ [8] Measurement System Analysis (MSA) in PPAP:

→ MSA usually contains the Gage R&R for the critical or high impact characteristics.
→ MSA gives confirmation that the measurement system (an instrument and appraiser) is able to measure these characteristics of the product.
Measurement System Analysis (MSA) in PPAP

👉 Click Here for GRR Study (MSA) Excel Template

➤ [9] Dimensional Results in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ A list of every dimension noted on the ballooned drawing.
→ This list shows the product characteristic, specification, the measurement results and the assessment showing if this dimension is “ok” or “not ok”.



➤ [10] Records of Material / Performance Test Results in PPAP:

→ A summary of every test performed on the part and  it is required in PPAP
→ This summary is usually on a form of DVP&R (Design Verification Plan and Report), which lists each individual test when it was performed, the specification, results and the assessment pass/fail.
→ The DVP&R shall be reviewed and signed off by both customer and supplier.
→ The quality engineer will look for a customer signature on this document.
→ In addition, this section lists all material certifications (steel, plastics, plating, etc.), as specified on the print.


➤ [11] Initial Process Studies in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ Usually, this section shows all Statistical Process Control charts affecting the most critical characteristics.
→ The intent is to demonstrate that critical processes have stable variability and that is running near the intended nominal value.

➤ [12] Qualified Laboratory Documentation in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ Copy of all laboratory certifications of the laboratories that performed the tests reported.
→ Also required all calibration certificates of all testing equipment and measuring instruments.
Qualified Laboratory Documentation in PPAP

➤ [13] Appearance Approval Report (AAR) in PPAP:

→ A copy of the AAR (Appearance Approval Report) form signed by the customer.
→ Applicable for components affecting appearance only.
Appearance Approval Report (AAR) in PPAP

👉 Click Here for Appearance Approval Report Excel Template

➤ [14] Sample Production Parts in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ A sample from the same lot of initial production run.
→ The PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) package usually shows a picture of the sample and where it is kept.

➤ [15] Master Sample in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ A sample signed off by customer and supplier, that usually is used to train operators on subjective inspections.

➤ [16] Checking Aids in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process):

→ When there are special tools for checking parts, this section shows a picture of the tool and calibration records, including a dimensional report of the tool and it is required in PPAP.

➤ [17] Customer-Specific Requirements in PPAP:

→ Each customer may have specific requirements to be included on the PPAP.



➤ [18] Part Submission Warrant (PSW) in PPAP:

→ This is the form that summarizes the whole PPAP package and it is required in PPAP.
→ This form shows the reason for submission (design change, annual revalidation, etc.) and the level of documents submitted to the customer.
→ There is a section that asks for “results meeting all drawing and specification requirements: yes/no” refers to the whole package.
Part Submission Warrant (PSW) in PPAP

👉 Click Here for Part Submission Warrant Excel Template

8) PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) Approval Status:

➤ [A] Approved PPAP:
→ The part meets all customer's requirements.
→ The supplier is authorized to ship production quantities of the part.

➤ [B] Interim Approved PPAP:
→ Permits shipment of the part on limited time or piece quantity basis.

➤ [C] Rejected PPAP:
→ The part does not meet customer's requirements.





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