PPAP | What is PPAP (Production Part Approval Process)?

PPAP | Production Part Approval Process | PPAP Documents

What is PPAP (Production Part Approval Process)?

→ PPAP is the Production Part Approval Process.
→ It is a very important tool for establishing confidence in product suppliers and their production processes."
→ ISO 9001:2015 and IATF 16949:2016 is used to formally reduce risks prior to product or service release, in a team-oriented manner, using well-established tools and techniques.
→ Initially developed by AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group) in 1993 with input from the Big 3 - Ford, Chrysler, and GM 
→ AIAG’s 4th edition effective June 1, 2006, is the most recent version of the Production Part Approval Process.
→ Production Part Approval Process has now spread to many different industries beyond automotive.

➤ Purpose of PPAP:

→  Production Part Approval Process Provide evidence that all customer engineering design record and specification requirements are properly understood by the organization.
→ To demonstrate that the manufacturing process has the potential to produce the product that consistently meets all requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.

When is PPAP Required?

  1. PPAP is required at the time of new product development
  2. It is required at the time of Engineering change(s)
  3. Tooling: transfer, replacement, refurbishment, or additional
  4. Correction of discrepancy
  5. It is required at the time of Tooling inactive > one year
  6. Change to optional construction or material
  7. Sub-supplier or material source change
  8. It is required at the time of change in part processing
  9. Parts produced at a new or additional location

Benefits of PPAP Submission:

→ PPAP helps to maintain design integrity
 Identifies issues early for resolution
 Reduces warranty charges and prevents the Cost of the Poor Quality
 Assists with managing supplier changes
 It prevents the use of unapproved and nonconforming parts
 Identifies suppliers that need more development
 Improves the overall quality of the product & customer satisfaction

➤ Production Run Production Part Approval Process

 PPAP data must be submitted from a production run using:
 Production equipment and tooling
 The Production employees
 The Production rate
 Production process

What is Run @ Rate in PPAP:

 The purpose of a Run @ Rate is to verify the supplier’s manufacturing process is capable of producing components.
 Successful  Run @ Rate means it meets Your Company's Quality Requirements, at quoted tooling capacity, for a specified period of time.
 Verification of the Run @ Rate will be at the Supplier Quality Engineer’s (SQE) discretion.
 The supplier will be notified of the need to perform a Run @ Rate as early in the process as possible.
 And the number of components to be produced during the Run @ Rate should be sufficient to demonstrate process capability and will be predetermined by the Supplier Quality Engineer and the supplier.
 The no. of components to be produced,  it may vary as per the customer's specific requirement.
 Factors such as product complexity, shelf life, storage, cost and single shift vs. multiple shift operations will be taken into consideration

Five levels of PPAP Submission:

→ There are five levels of PPAP submission which is mentioned in the below figure.
  1. Level 1: Production Warrant and Appearance Approval Report (if applicable)
  2. Level 2: Production Warrant, product samples and dimensional results submitted 
  3. Level 3: Production Warrant, product samples & complete supporting data submitted 
  4. Level 4: Production Warrant, and other requirements as defined by the customer
  5. Level 5: Production Warrant, product samples and complete supporting data (review will be at the organization's location).

PPAP Submission Levels

PPAP Documents:

➤ The 18 Documents or Elements of PPAP are:

01. Design Records
02. Authorized Engineering Change Documents
03. Customer Engineering Approval, if required
04. Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA)
05. Process Flow Diagram
06. Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA)
07. Control Plan
08. Measurement System Analysis (MSA)
09. Dimensional Results
10. Records of Material / Performance Test Results
11. Initial Process Studies
12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
13. Appearance Approval Report (AAR)
14. Sample Production Parts
15. Master Sample
16. Checking Aids
17. Customer-Specific Requirements
18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW)

➤ Note: →  For each level, full APQP is required as per customer's requirement.
               → The PPAP level simply indicates which elements you submit, and which you retain at your site.

➥ [1] Design Records:

→ Design record is a copy of the drawing and  it is required in PPAP
→ If the customer is responsible for designing then this is a copy of the customer's drawing that is sent together with the Purchase Order (PO).
→ If the supplier is responsible for designing this is a released drawing in supplier’s release system.

Design Records in PPAP

➥ [2] Authorized Engineering Change Documents:

→  Authorized Engineering Change Documents is a document that shows the detailed description of the change and it is required in PPAP if applicable.
→  Usually, this document is called “Engineering Change Notice(ECN)”, but it may be covered by the customer PO or any other engineering authorization.

➥ [3] Customer Engineering Approval, if required:

→ This approval is usually the Engineering trial with production parts performed at the customer plant.
→ A “temporary deviation” usually is required to send parts to the customer before PPAP.
→ Customer may require other “Engineering Approvals”.

➥ [4] Design Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (DFMEA):

→ A copy of the Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer.
→ Design maker is responsible for (DFMEA)

→ A copy of the Process Flow, indicating all steps and sequence in the process, including incoming components to final part dispatched and it is required in PPAP.

Process Flow Diagram in PPAP

👉 Download Process Flow Diagram Excel Template

→ A copy of the Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer and  it is required in PPAP
→ The PFMEA follows the Process Flow steps, and indicate “what could go wrong” during the process and assembly of each component till product dispatched.

Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) in PPAP

👉 Download PFMEA Excel Template

➥ [7] Control Plan:

→  A copy of the Control Plan reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer and  it is required in PPAP.
→  The Control Plan follows the PFMEA steps and provides more details on how the “potential issues” are checked in the incoming quality, assembly process or during inspections of finished products till dispatched final product.

Control Plan in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process)

👉 Download Control Plan Excel Template

→ MSA usually contains the Gage R&R for critical or high impact characteristics.
→ MSA gives confirmation that the measurement system (an instrument and appraiser) is able to measure these characteristics of the product.

Measurement System Analysis (MSA) in PPAP

👉 Download  GRR Study (MSA) Excel Template

➥ [9] Dimensional Results:

→ A list of every dimension noted on the ballooned drawing.
→ This list shows the product characteristic, specification, the measurement results and the assessment showing if this dimension is “ok” or “not ok”.

➥ [10] Records of Material / Performance Test Results:

→ A summary of every test performed on the part and  it is required in PPAP
→ This summary is usually on a form of DVP&R (Design Verification Plan and Report), which lists each individual test when it was performed, the specification, results and the assessment pass/fail.
→ The DVP&R shall be reviewed and signed off by both customer and supplier.
→ In addition, this section lists all material certifications (steel, plastics, plating, etc.), as specified on the print.

➥ [11] Initial Process Studies:

→ Usually, this section shows all Statistical Process Control Charts affecting the most critical characteristics.
→ The intent is to demonstrate that critical processes have stable variability and that is running near the intended nominal value.

➥ [12] Qualified Laboratory Documentation:

→ Copy of all laboratory certifications of the laboratories that performed the tests reported.
→ Also required all calibration certificates of all Measuring instruments and Testing Equipment

Qualified Laboratory Documentation in PPAP (Production Part Approval Process)

➥ [13] Appearance Approval Report (AAR):

→ A copy of the AAR (Appearance Approval Report) form signed by the customer.
→ Applicable for components affecting appearance only.

Appearance Approval Report (AAR) in PPAP

👉 Download Appearance Approval Report Excel Template

➥ [14] Sample Production Parts:

→ A sample from the same lot of initial production run.
→ The PPAP (Production Part Approval Process) package usually shows a picture of the sample and where it is kept.

➥ [15] Master Sample:

→ A sample signed off by customer and supplier, that usually is used to train operators on subjective inspections.

➥ [16] Checking Aids:

→ When there are special tools for checking parts, this section shows a picture of the tool and calibration records, including a dimensional report of the tool and it is required in PPAP.

➥ [17] Customer-Specific Requirements:

→ Each customer may have specific requirements to be included on the PPAP.

➥ [18] Part Submission Warrant (PSW):

→ This is the form that summarizes the whole PPAP package.
→ This form shows the reason for submission (design change, annual revalidation, etc.) and the level of documents submitted to the customer.
→ There is a section that asks for “results meeting all drawing and specification requirements: yes/no” refers to the whole package.

Part Submission Warrant (PSW) in PPAP

👉 Download Part Submission Warrant Excel Template

PPAP Approval Status:

➤ [A] Approved:
→ The part meets all the customer's requirements.
→ The supplier is authorized to ship production quantities of the part.

➤ [B] Interim Approved:
→ Permits shipment of the part on limited time or piece quantity basis.

➤ [C] Rejected:
→ The part does not meet the customer's requirements.