## What is a Problem and Problem Solving Techniques?

### 1) What is the Problem and Problem Solving Techniques?

→ “A Problem is an undesirable event.” OR
→ “Any Gap between what is expected and what is obtained”, can be called as a Problem.
Problem Solving Techniques is the various method used to solve the problem.

### 2) Problem Solving?

→ Any effort to reduce this gap between what is expected and what is obtained
called “Problem Solving”.

#### ➨ Types of Solution?

1. Correction: In a simple word "Correction is like first-aid," Correction is the instant action that is taken to correct the nonconformity or to reduce the impact of nonconformity.

2. Corrective Action: "Corrective actions are steps that are taken to remove the causes of an existing nonconformity or undesirable situation or event."

3. Prevention: "Prevention is to eliminate the causes of potential nonconformities or potential situations that are responsible for an undesirable situation or event.

4. Preventive Action: "Preventive actions are steps that are taken to remove the causes of potential nonconformities or potential situations that are undesirable.

### 2) Problem-solving Vs Process Improvement:

→ The Problem solving and Process Improvement is mentioned below.

### 3) Various Problem Solving Techniques:

→ The Various Problem-solving Techniques are mentioned below:

2. DMAIC - Methodology
3. A3 - Methodology
4. 8D - Methodology

#### ➤ [1] PDCA - Cycle Problem Solving Technique:

PDCA (plan-do-check-act) is also called Daming Cycle or Daming Wheel or Daming Wheel.
While PDSA (plan–do–study–act) is called Shewhart Cycle.
PDCA (plan-do-check-act) is a repetitive four-stage model for continuous improvement in business or process management.
→ The model is implemented to improve the quality and effectiveness of processes within
◼ Product Lifecycle Management,
Project Management,
Human Resource Management (HRM),
Supply Chain Management (SCM) and many other areas of business.

Cycle refers to :
P = Plan
D = Do
C = Check
A = Act

#### ➤ [2] DMAIC - Methodology - Problem Solving Technique:

→ DMAIC is a quality strategy used to improve processes.
→ It is an integral part of a Six Sigma initiative,
→ In general, DMAIC can be implemented as a standalone quality improvement procedure or as part of other process improvements.

DMAIC Cycle refers to :
D = Define
M = Measure
A = Analyse
I = Improve
C = Control

#### ➤ [3] A3 - Methodology - Problem Solving Technique:

→ It is widely used by Toyota motors and its supplier.
It refers to eight steps :
1. Clarify the problem
2. Break down the Problem
3. Set the Target
4. Analyze the root cause
5. Develop countermeasure
6. See Countermeasure
7. Evaluate results & Processes
8. Standardize Success

#### ➤ [4] 8D - Methodology - Problem Solving Technique:

→ It is widely used by Ford Motors and its supplier.
→ It refers to 8 - Discipline
1. Create Team & Collect Information
2. Describe the Problem
3. Interim Containment Actions
4. Analyze the root cause
5. Define the possible corrective actions
6. Implement corrective actions
7. Define actions to avoid recurrence
8. Congratulate the Team

### 4) Comparison of Various Problem Solving Techniques:

→ Comparison of Various Problem Solving Methodology is mentioned below

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